Klemens von Metternich 1773-1859
Klemens von Metternich 1773-1859

Conservative, Sophisticate, Skilled Diplomat

Metternich was foreign minister of the Austrian Empire from 1809-1848, which made  Napoleon I and the Congress of Vienna of 1815 two of the many highlights of his career.

This also made Metternich the statesman in modern history who held continuous office at the head of Europe's affairs the longest.


Image Above

Clemens Wenzel Lothar Fürst Metternich

Detail of the painting by Sir Thomas Lawrence


Metternich's Full Set of Names and Titles

Klemens (also Clemens or Clement)
(also Wenceslaus or Wenceslas) Nepomuk Lothar,
Earl and Prince von Metternich-Winneburg-Beilstein

Duke Portella, Earl of Königswart (Kynzvart)

Knight of the Golden Fleece, Grandee of Spain First Class,
His Imperial Royal Majesty's Privy Councilor,
Court Chamberlain, Court Chancellor, Cabinet Minister,
Minister of Foreign Affairs, Prime Minister of the Empire

Metternich in a Nutshell

Austrian Chancellor Metternich was one of the most capable diplomats of his time. He even outwitted Napoleon, a fact he didn't fail to boast about, and wouldn't you? The only man in his line of work who could be considered Metternich's equal was  Talleyrand.

In the end, however, Metternich failed because his basic strategy was to support  autocracy, whereas the general political development in Europe, especially after the  French Revolution, moved rapidly towards democracy.

See also Forms of Government.

In his Metternich biography, Alan Palmer sums up Metternich's remarkable political longevity:

In 1790 he [Metternich] performed official duties during the coronation of Leopold II as Holy Roman Emperor of the German Reich; and in 1859 his advice on questions of war and peace was still being sought by Leopold's great-grandson, Francis Joseph.

Alan Palmer Metternich, 1972


Metternich's Appearance

When entering a room, some women folk noticed Metternich's good looks. He was poised and of course very bright. He had elegance, courtesy, and good taste.


Who Was in Charge at the Time?

In Metternich's lifetime, the following emperors ruled Austria:

1765 - 1790 Joseph II 1741-1790 Joseph II

Holy Roman Emperor, son of
Maria Theresa
1790 - 1792 Leopold II 1747-1792 Leopold II

Holy Roman Emperor, son of
Maria Theresa
1792 - 1835 Francis II 1768-1835 Francis II

Holy Roman Emperor 1792-1806 / as Francis I: Austrian Emperor 1804-1835, son of
Leopold II
1835 - 1848 Ferdinand I the Benign 1793-1875 Ferdinand I the Benign

Austrian Emperor, son of
Francis II
1848 - 1916 Francis Joseph 1830-1916 Francis Joseph

Austrian Emperor, nephew of
 Ferdinand I the Benign

See also
Holy Roman Empire and Governments of Austria.


Metternich's Family and Background

The tiny village of Metternich was named after Klemens' ancestors. Here it is:

Map Location Village of Metternich, Euskirchen District, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
Map Location of Metternich, Euskirchen District, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
Google map


The House of Metternich was of ancient and solid German nobility, with headquarters located in the beautiful lands along the Rhine River. Their family tree goes back to Henry I the Fowler.

The Metternich dynasty spread its procreation through twelve lines. Klemens von Metternich was a descendant of the youngest family branch, and the last one not extinct, the line of Winneburg-Beilstein.

Hence, Klemens von Metternich was the prince (German: Fürst) of Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein.

Both, Winneburg and Beilstein Castle, were already in ruins when Klemens von Metternich was born. But we get an idea of Metternich's background and his family's former glory. Here are photos of what's left of the former castles:

Castle Metternich at Beilstein, Germany
Castle Metternich at Beilstein (Mosel) in Germany
Photo: Klaus Graf


Winneburg Castle, in Cochem (Mosel) in Germany
Winneburg Castle, Cochem (Mosel) in Germany
Photo: Thomas Krämer


How come Metternich was the Earl of Königswart?

Because one of his ancestors, Heinrich Metternich, became owner of Königswart after having successfully fought in the Battle of the White Mountain in 1620, which was part of the Thirty Years' War.

Konigswart is located 160 miles north-west of Vienna.

Here she shines:

Koenigswart Castle, now in the Czech Republic
Koenigswart Castle, now in the Czech Republic
Photo: Bohemia Františkovy Lázně


Metternich's Father

Klemens von Metternich's father was the Count (German: Graf) and later Prince (German: Fürst) Franz Georg Karl von Metternich (also: Francis George Charles von Metternich.)

He lived from March 9, 1746 until August 11, 1818, and was apparently of stout appearance.

Born at Koblenz, Germany, he was a diplomat in the services of the Archbishop of Trier (or in French: Trèves.) In 1774, he switched employers and became Austria's ambassador to the Rhenish electors, representing the Viennese Court in general, and Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II (son of  Maria Theresa) in particular.

In 1791, under the Duke Albert von Sachsen-Teschen and Archduchess Christine, Franz von Metternich was directing minister for the Netherlands. And again from 1793-1794, after the re-conquest of Belgium under Archduke Carl, until after the  Battle of Fleurus the Netherlands had been lost for the second time.

From 1810, and in the absence of his son Klemens, he held the fort at the Austrian ministry of foreign affairs.

Metternich Sr. died at Vienna.

Summing up father Franz, Alan Palmer leaves his velvet gloves in the drawer:

In many ways he was typical of the eighteenth-century aristocracy in a petty state except that he had even less common sense than most of his fellow nobles and much more money to fritter away.

Alan Palmer Metternich, 1972


Metternich's Mother

Klemens von Metternich's mother was the smart and witty Countess (German: Gräfin) Maria Beatrix Aloisia (Marie Beatrice Eloise) von Kagenegg (also spelled Kageneck.) At the imperial residence in Vienna, Countess Beatrice was not a stranger.

She already had been a countess before she married Franz von Metternich. In fact, with regards to climbing the nobility ladder, Franz gained much more from this marriage than did Beatrice.

Although German, correspondence between Mother Beatrice and Son Klemens, by the way, was always conducted in French.

It was thanks to Beatrice and her mixture of spunk and intellect that the Metternich's not only recovered after 1794, but came to more prominence than ever. How did she do it? By arranging a marriage between her son Klemens and Eleonore von Kaunitz, grand-daughter of "Austria's greatest statesman of the century," the famous chancellor Kaunitz.


Metternich's Siblings

Father Franz von Metternich and Mother Beatrice von Kagenegg married in January 1771. Beatrice was 15 or 18 years old at the time. The couple had four children.

Metternich's elder sister Marie Pauline Kunigunde Walpurge was born on November 29, 1771. She died in 1855.

Klemens was their second child, born May 15, 1773. He died in 1859.

Metternich's younger brother Joseph was born on November 4, 1774. He died in 1830.

A fourth child, a son, was born in 1777 but died soon after, in 1778.


Metternich's Wives and Children

Klemens von Metternich married three times and had affairs more often than that.

First Marriage

On September 27, 1795, Metternich married the Countess Eleonore von Kaunitz, born in October 1775, and hence 19 years old at the time.

She was the only daughter of Count Ernst Christoph von Kaunitz. Father Kaunitz was a prominent diplomat, a fan of all things Mozart, and the son of the highly influential Austrian chancellor Count Wenzel Anton von Kaunitz.

This marriage had been arranged by Metternich's mother Beatrice. For Klemens, this wedding meant great estates in Austria, vast wealth, and an open door to the top Viennese nobility. Hence, the motivation for this union was just that, not love. However, Klemens managed to grow feelings of genuine affection and respect for her.

Eleonore was the plain looking type, but she was in love.

Eleonore's father was less than thrilled, finding Klemens too shallow, mother Beatrice's schemes obnoxious, and the presence of Klemens Senior just unbearable, unless the latter kept his mouth shut. But he eventually gave in under the condition that young Metternich wouldn't work as a diplomat as long as he, Kaunitz, was alive. Klemens promised and kept his word. Ernst Christoph von Kaunitz died in 1797.

Metternich's seven children with Eleonore were:

- Marie (Maria Leopoldina), born on January 17, 1797

- Francis Charles, born in February 1798, died in November 1799 (lung infection)

- Clement, born in June 1799, died a few days later

- Victor Ernst Francis Lothar Clemens Joseph Adam, born on January 12, 1803

- Clementine

- Leontine Adelheid Marie Pauline, born June 18, 1811

- Hermine Gabriele Marie Eleonore Leopoldine, born September 1, 1815

The first five children preceded their father in death. Wife Eleonore died on March 19, 1825.

Second Marriage

On November 5, 1827, Metternich married his second wife, the Baroness Marie Antoinette von Leykam, Countess von Beilstein. Antoinette (or Antonie) died on January 17, 1829.

Metternich's child with Marie was:

- Richard Clemens Lothar, born January 7, 1829. He became Austrian ambassador in Paris from 1859-1871. Richard survived his father and died in 1895.

Third Marriage

Metternich's third wife was the Countess Melanie Zichy-Ferraris, who died March 3, 1854.

Metternich's children with Melanie were:

- Paul, who lived 1834-1906

- Lothar, who lived 1837-1904

One of Metternich's mistresses was Napoleon's sister,
Caroline Murat.

One of Metternich's illegitimate children was Clementine.


Klemens von Metternich — The Early Years

Metternich was born at Coblenz (German: Koblenz) in 1773. At the time, the map of Europe looked something like this:

Central Europe 1786
1786 Central Europe
Click map to enlarge


You can find Coblenz on the same map, look for the square "Dc":

Map Location of Coblenz, Germany
Map Location of Coblenz, Germany
Click map to enlarge.

As illustrated on the map, Coblenz was part of the Archbishopric of Trèves (German: Trier.)

Metternich's Trier and Coblenz

Ancient Trier (aka Treveris, or Augusta Treverorum, or Trèves) stomping grounds of a Germanic tribe, or more to the point, a Belgic tribe, the Treveri, became an official Roman town around 15 BC. Moreover, it became the capital of Belgica, the Rome of the West. Roman emperor Valentinian II was born here at Trier in AD 371.

Trier became an archbishopric in 815, and its archbishops became powerful princes within the realm of the Holy Roman Empire. Metternich Sr. was working for the archbishop of Trier before he (or, more probably, his wife for him) could secure employment in the services of the Austrian Emperor.

Coblenz is one of the oldest cities in Germany. Founded by the Romans in 9 BC it was named Confluentes, because here the rivers Rhine and Moselle, or Mosel, meet.

By the time of Metternich's birth, the Coblenz administration had been a little bit neglected. In 1774, the town chronicler was appalled and referred to the general state of the municipal archives as "a pig sty." This problem seems to have been resolved by the year 1805.

Deutsches Eck (German Corner) at Koblenz, Germany, Where the Rivers Rhine and Mosel Meet
Deutsches Eck (German Corner) at Koblenz, Germany,
Where the Rivers Rhine and Mosel Meet


In the early 1780s, Coblenz had about 12,000 inhabitants.

Should you decide to visit Coblenz, ask your cab driver to get you to Münzplatz 8, where you will find House Metternich, Metternich's birthplace. This house was built in 1674. Actually, it was the birthplace of all of Franz and Beatrice von Metternich's four children.

House Metternich, Koblenz
House Metternich, Koblenz


Metternich's Education — The Early Years

The Metternichs were Catholic. However, young Klemens was tutored by the Catholic Abbé Bertrand and the Protestant Johann Friedrich Simon (John Frederick Simon) who would become a member of the Jacobine Club.

The early years in Coblenz ended when both tutors accompanied Klemens and Joseph to enroll at the university of Strasbourg.

One of Klemens' instructors at Strasbourg was Professor Koch, who taught law, politics, and the history of revolution.

While Metternich studied at Strasbourg, the French Revolution broke out in Paris. The riot wave reached Strasbourg and a mob pillaged its town hall. But order was restored the same day.

Nevertheless, due to the revolutionary spirit at and around Strasbourg, Metternich switched to Mainz university shortly after, where he was educated in all things politics and diplomacy by Professor Nicholas Vogt.

Metternich spent the vacations with his father at Brussels, then Austrian Netherlands, where he found employment at the Chancery, his father's workplace.


Metternich the Conservative Politician

Growing up, Metternich witnessed the unrest of the French Revolution. This, in combination with his education and heritage, left him very much opposed to, and almost traumatized by, revolutionary ideas. He became an advocate of conservative values.

Metternich's political career kicked off with the Congress of Rastatt in December 1797. He attended in his capacity as representative of the Westphalian counts and was thoroughly bored.


Metternich and Napoleon

Metternich deemed the French emperor an ambitious upstart, which makes sense considering a comparison of background and upbringing of the two men.

Yet, Napoleon managed to keep Metternich on his toes by confiscating his holdings and his workers in 1796, and requesting his services as ambassador to France in 1806. Although Metternich hated Napoleon's guts, he complied, and his stiff upper lip was admired by many a compatriot.

In 1806, the Holy Roman Empire came to an end. Its last emperor,  Francis II, was renamed Francis I and kept on as Emperor of Austria.

When put together in a room, it was Napoleon who became unnerved by Metternich first. Strong emotions and pretentious ambitions ran into an unyielding brick wall of indifference. Such was the case on August 15, 1808, when the two met at Saint-Cloud.


Metternich and the Austrian War

In May 1809, Napoleon's troops occupied Vienna, starting the Austrian War. On May 21 - 22, 1809, the Austrians fought back and won the Battle of Aspern-Essling.

It was Napoleon who had the last word, winning the Battle of Wagram, which was fought July 5 - 6, 1809.

But Napoleon could spot and appreciate diplomatic skill. Thus, he made Metternich Minister of State in August 1809 and Minister of Imperial Affairs and Foreign Affairs in October 1809.

On October 14, 1809, Austria was forced to stand up for her loss in the Austrian War and cede extensive territories by signing the humiliating Treaty of Schönbrunn.

Nonetheless, the cumulative events and their outcome, and the role he played in it, did a number on Metternich. According to contemporaries, Metternich became very aware of his diplomatic influence and power, and could sometimes come across a little brusque and snippy.

How was he able to maintain such an attitude? Austria had just lost a war. What was up his sleeve?

Metternich knew of Napoleon's desperate wish to be linked to a real royal dynasty after having been divorced from Josephine. Archduchess Marie Louise, eldest daughter of Francis I, came in handy. Metternich arranged things accordingly and the two married on April 1, 1810.


What is The Age of Metternich?

Thirty-three of Metternich's thirty-nine years in office as foreign minister for the Austrian Empire are also called the Age of Metternich.

He was foreign minister from 1809 to 1848. The Age of Metternich refers to the years 1815 to 1848.



Klemens von Metternich — Timeline

May 15, 1773

Birth at Koblenz, Germany

November 29, 1780

Maria Theresa dies

Midsummer 1786

Visit at Königswart

August 17, 1786

Frederick the Great dies

November 12, 1788 - 1790

Enrolls at University of Strasburg (Strasbourg) together with his brother Joseph.

July 14, 1789

Storming of the Bastille. Outbreak of the  French Revolution

July 21, 1789

News of the revolution have arrived at Strasbourg. A mob storms town hall. But it will be all under control again by tomorrow morning.

November 1789

Unrest in the Austrian Netherlands in form of the  Brabant Revolution. The locals want to get rid of the Austrian rule.

Here are the Austrian Netherlands on a map, see squares BC-III/IV:

Central Europe 1789
Central Europe 1789
Click map to enlarge

January 11, 1790

The rebels proclaim independence and a United States of Belgium.

February 20, 1790

Joseph II dies

September 1790

Metternich leaves Strasbourg for Frankfurt.

October 9, 1790

Master of Ceremonies (Marshal to the Catholic Bench of the College of the Counts of Westphalia) at  Leopold II's coronation at Frankfurt. Also present was his father, Franz von Metternich.


Studies at University of Mainz.

December 30, 1790

Austria has crushed the Brabant Revolution and order is established. Father Franz is appointed Minister Plenipotentiary to the States General of the Austrian Netherlands.

What's a Minister Plenipotentiary?
An envoy or ambassador deputed by his sovereign to act at his own discretion. Ergo full authority for Franz. Palmer thinks he was not suited for the job.

June 21, 1791

Louis XVI tries to flee the country but gets caught at Varennes and is brought back to Paris.

July 1791

Father Franz arrives at his new desk in Brussels.

August 27, 1791

Declaration of Pillnitz

March 1, 1792

Leopold II dies.

April 20, 1792

France declares war on Austria. This is the War of the First Coalition. The French Revolutionary Wars have begun.

July 14, 1792

Metternich acts as Master of Ceremonies (Marshal to the Catholic Bench of the College of the Counts of Westphalia) at  Francis II's coronation, at Frankfurt. Coincidentally (or was it?), this day was the third anniversary of the fall of the Bastille.

Summer of 1792

Ends studies at the university of Mainz. Travels back to Coblenz.

July 30, 1792

The Prussians, Austria's ally, leave Coblenz direction Paris.

Fall 1792

Metternich arrives at Brussels.

October 1792

The French take Worms, Mains, and Frankfurt.

November 6, 1792

 Battle of Jemappes

After this defeat, the Austrians evacuate Brussels. The Metternichs flee first to Roermond, then to Coblenz.

March 1, 1793

Austrian counter-offensive begins, led by the  Prince of Coburg.

Early Spring 1793

The Metternichs are back in Brussels.

April 2, 1793

Dumouriez arrests the French commissioners that were ordered by the French government to arrest him and sends them to Metternich Jr. for questioning.

April 5, 1793

Dumouriez and Louis-Philippe defect to the Austrians, confirming Metternich's conservatives values.

Early Spring 1794

Metternich travels to London, accompanying Count Desandrouin, treasurer of the Belgian Provinces, who comes to England to negotiate a British loan.

This trip introduces Metternich to British high society. Interestingly, he thinks the Prince of Wales (later king George IV) is one of the most handsome men he ever saw.

June 26, 1794

 Battle of Fleurus. Important French victory. For the next twenty years, France, instead of Austria, will occupy the Low Countries.

While still at London, twenty-one year-old Metternich receives news that he is appointed as the Emperor's Minister Plenipotentiary to the United Netherlands at the Hague.

After the Austrian defeat at Fleurus, Brussels will be consequently abandoned by the Austrians. Metternich Senior will flee from Brussels to Dusseldorf.

July 19, 1794

The Austrian Emperor informs Metternich Senior, who is now at Dusseldorf, that he has dissolved the administration of the Austrian Netherlands.

In addition, the Emperor blames Metternich Sr for the latest setbacks in Belgium. His Majesty had visited Brussels that spring and was not at all impressed by Metternich's administration. Emphasized as a particularly stupid idea was Metternich's decision to arm the peasants so that they could help fighting the invaders, which completely backfired.

August 1794

Metternich Jr, still at London, issues his first publication, a pamphlet in which he argues for political conservatism and the general arming of the population in order to fight the Revolution. Thus trying to defend his father's policy, Klemens von Metternich will also have to share the criticism that came his father's way.

September 1794

Metternich leaves Harwich for Den Haag where he has to search for a month for the guys he is supposed to be working with. The Austrian government had left the Austrian Netherlands.

October 1794

The Metternichs (father and mother, not Klemens) travel to Vienna to avoid the French.

October 23, 1794

The French take Metternich's home-town Coblenz. All of the Metternich estates (except Konigswart, of course) are confiscated.

Mid-November 1794

Klemens von Metternich joins his parents at Vienna. Generally perceived as a little bit too ambitious, and with the Emperor's latest bad review in their knapsack, the Metternichs don't have many friends in high places at Vienna, nor do they have employment in His Majesty's services. This social ice age will last for nearly two years.

Early 1795

The Austrian Emperor allocates a pension for Metternich Sr. to compensate for lost estates in the Rhineland.

September 27, 1795

At Austerlitz, Clemens von Metternich marries his first wife, Eleonore von Kaunitz.

Winter 1795 / 1796

Clemens and Eleonore von Metternich spend the winter at the Kaunitz town residence in Vienna.

During these months, Clemens might or might not have seriously continued his studies in Geology, Physics, and Chemistry.

December 8, 1795

Clemens and Eleonore von Metternich give their first grand reception and dinner.

January 17, 1797

Birth of daughter Marie Leopoldine von Metternich.

May 19 (or September) 1797

Death of father-in-law Ernst Christoph von Kaunitz.

(In his Memoirs, Metternich writes, "In the autumn of 1797, death carried off my father-in-law." Palmer reads, "But in September 1797... Prince Kaunitz suddenly fell ill and died.")

October 17, 1797

Peace of Campo Formio. Austria is forced to agree to the French possession of the Rhineland. France wins the  War of the First Coalition.

Here is the map:

Central Europe 1797
Central Europe after the Peace of Basel (1795)
and of Campo Formio (1797)

December 9, 1797 -
April 23, 1799

Rastatter Friedenskongress (Congress of Peace at Rastatt)

The French had taken the lands on the left bank of the Rhine River. The Congress was convened in order to negotiate recompense for the German princes who lost these lands.

Metternich Sr. was chosen as Imperial Plenipotentiary. He brings his son, Metternich Jr., along as secretary, who will get appointed representative of the Westphalian College of Counts.

Check this event in the Timeline of the French Revolutionary Wars.

February 1798

Birth of son Francis Charles

April 23, 1799

Rastatt Congress ends, Metternich back to Vienna

June 1799

Birth of son Clement, who will die a few days later

November 1799

Death of son Francis Charles (lung infection)

Metternich keeps a low profile, resumes his scientific studies, or not.

November 9-10, 1799

Napoleon Bonaparte comes to power via coup d'état. He is now First Consul of France.

January 16, 1801

Baron Thugut is forced to resign his post as Austrian's State Chancellor. Count Cobenzl becomes his successor.

End of January 1801

Francis offered Metternich one of the three following jobs: Minister to the Imperial Diet at Regensburg, to the Danish Kingdom of Copenhagen, or to the Saxon Kingdom in Dresden.

Metternich pondered and, at the end of January 1801, decides to accept the post at Dresden.

In his Memoirs, he writes,

Dresden, on the contrary, one stage on the way to Berlin or St. Petersburg, I valued as a post of observation which might be made useful.

February 5, 1801

Appointed Austrian ambassador to Saxony. Before starting at his new desk, Metternich stays the summer at Vienna, travels to Konigswart in autumn, and will arrive at Dresden on November 4, 1801. He will reside at the court of Dresden for two years.

February 9, 1801

Treaty of Luneville.

November 4, 1801

Metternich arrives at Dresden and will stay here, at the Court of Saxony, for two years.


Appointed Austrian ambassador to the Prussian court in Berlin.


Austria again an empire. Francis II strips off one I and declares himself Emperor of Austria as Francis I.


Napoleon's armies occupy Vienna.

August 6, 1806

Francis II resigns his crown and ends the  Holy Roman Empire. But he keeps the throne as Emperor of Austria.

Napoleon requests Metternich to be appointed Austrian ambassador to France. Metternich moves to Paris.

May 10, 1809

Napoleon's armies occupy Vienna once again.
 Austrian War commences.

October 1809

Becomes Minister of Foreign Affairs

September 15, 1817

Daughter Marie-Leopoldine marries Joseph Esterhazy von Galantha

Spring 1848

Resigns his post as minister of Foreign Affairs

July 24, 1848

First Battle of Custoza, First Italian War of Independence

June 11, 1859

Death at Vienna, Austria



Metternich's Strengths and Weaknesses

His skills and foresight as a diplomat were masterful.

Although witty and refined, Metternich's self-gratulating attitude could be a little bit exhausting at times. And, when reminiscing, he sometimes omitted or invented at will. Actually, he rarely remembered events in which he didn't participate.

A boundless capacity for self-delusion lay high among his attributes.

Alan Palmer Metternich, 1972



Klemens von Metternich Trivia and More

  • Metternich took violin lessons while he attended university at Strasbourg, and apparently, he was not bad at it.

  • Referring to Metternich's first wife, Eleonore von Kaunitz, Alan Palmer notes, "Eleonore was small and plain looking, with so few features on her face that she presented and insoluble problem to the portrait painters." Seriously, buy Palmer's Metternich biography.

  • You can read Metternich's Memoirs online and free, provided by


Metternich Quoted

This Metternich quote might best sum up the man:

L’erreur n’a jamais approchè de mon esprit.

Error has never approached my spirit.

Metternich, addressed to Francois Pierre G. Guizot in 1848




More History

Previous Page

Kevin Rudd


Back to

First Page

Back to
People in History
Main Page


Next Page

Kublai Khan


People in History A - Z


People in History by Group

Explorers, Scientists & Inventors

Musicians, Painters & Artists

Poets, Writers & Philosophers

Native Americans & The Wild West

First Ladies





Royal Families

Tribes & Peoples


King John of England 1167-1216


Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible 1530 - 1584


Adolf Hitler 1889 - 1945



Famous Speeches in History
Browse the speech archive:

Speeches by Topic A-Z

Speeches by Speaker A-Z

Speeches in Chronological Order

Speeches Given by Women

Speeches Given by African-Americans

Speeches Given by U.S. Presidents

Wars, Battles & Revolutions in History


Online History Dictionary A - Z

Online History Dictionary A - Z


Gilgamesh - His City, His People, His Epic


Attila the Hun
More about the greatest of all Barbarian rulers:

Attila short biography

Map of Attila's empire

Battle of the Catalaunian Plains

Who were the Huns?



American Timeline 1492-Today

Greco-Persian Wars
Also called the Persian Wars, the Greco-Persian Wars were fought for almost half a century from 492 to 449 BC. Greece won against enormous odds. Here is more:

Battle of Marathon
Battle of Thermopylae
Battle of Salamis
Battle of Plataea



Mexican Revolution

The Mexican Revolution

Check out the
Timelines of the Mexican Revolution

Mexico's transition from dictatorship to constitutional republic translated into ten messy years of skirmishing in Mexican history.

More from the Mexican Revolution:

Pancho Villa

Emiliano Zapata

Francisco I. Madero

Causes of the Mexican Revolution

Women in the Mexican Revolution

Summary of the Mexican Revolution


Metternich Quoted

I would like to call out to the representatives of social upheaval: "Citizen of a world, that exists
but in your dreams, nothing is altered. On 14 March, nothing happened save the elimination of a single man."

On his own downfall in 1848

The Emperor is everything, Vienna is nothing.

From Metternich’s Nachgelassenen Papieren

The true merit of a statesman ... consists of governing so as to avoid a situation in which
concessions become necessary.

From Metternich’s Nachgelassenen Papieren

The word freedom has for me never had the character of a point of departure but of a goal. The point of departure is order which alone can produce freedom. Without order the appeal to
freedom is no more than the quest of some specific party for its special objectives and will in practice always lead to tyranny.

From Metternich’s Nachgelassenen Papieren

Religion, morality, legislation, economics, politics, administration, all seem to have become a common good and accessible to everyone. Science appears intuitive, experience has no value for the presumptuous; faith means nothing to him, and he substitutes for it the pretence of a personal conviction.

Memorandum to Czar Alexander I, 1820

Italien ist ein geographischer Begriff.

Italy is a geographical expression.

Discussing the Italian question with Palmerston in 1847



About Mata Hari


The Divine Almanac - The Who's Who of Ancient Gods


Forms of Government


The Ancient Greeks in a Nutshell


All Things Nixon



Ever Wondered How to
Tutor a Problem Child?

Observe and learn from Seneca.

Suicide optional.


Fall of the Bastille - July 14, 1789


Famous Animals in History


Joan of Arc in a Nutshell



Picture Archive


Picture Archive A - C

Picture Archive D - M

Picture Archive N - Z


Historical Castles and Palaces
Historical Castles and Palaces



Ivan the Terrible
Was the man really all that dreadful?

More about Ivan IV, aka The Terrible



Governments of Rome
Governments of Rome











































































































































































































































































French Revolution - Its Causes, Its Victims, Its Effects


People in History

People in History A

People in History B

People in History Ca - Char

People in History Chas - Cz

People in History D

People in History E

People in History F

People in History G

People in History H

People in History I

People in History J - K

People in History L

People in History M

People in History N - O

People in History P - Q

People in History R

People in History S

People in History T

People in History U - Z

Explorers, Scientists & Inventors

Musicians, Painters & Artists

Poets, Writers & Philosophers

Native Americans & The Wild West

First Ladies





Royal Families

Tribes & Peoples


Wars, Battles & Revolutions

Wars & Revolutions A

Wars & Revolutions B - E

Wars & Revolutions F - G

Wars & Revolutions H - J

Wars & Revolutions K - O

Wars & Revolutions P - R

Wars & Revolutions S - Z

Wars & Revolutions Chronological

Battles A - C

Battles D - G

Battles H - L

Battles M - P

Battles Q - Z

Battles Ancient Times - 1499

Battles 1500 - 1699

Battles 1700 - 1799

Battles 1800 - 1899

Battles 1900 - Today


History Dictionary A - F

History Dictionary G - Z

Source Text - By Title

Source Text - By Author

Historic Documents A - K

Historic Documents L - Z

Historic Documents Chronological

Music in History

History Movies



Kids & History


About Us

Write Me



Sitemap 01   Sitemap 02   Sitemap 03    Sitemap 04   Sitemap 05   Sitemap 06  
Sitemap 07   Sitemap 08   Sitemap 09    Sitemap 10   Sitemap 11   Sitemap 12
Sitemap 13   Sitemap 14   Sitemap 15    Sitemap 16   Sitemap 17   Sitemap 18
Sitemap 19   Sitemap 20   Sitemap 21    Sitemap 22   Sitemap 23   Sitemap 24

Site Search













© 2016 Emerson Kent