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Video Clip: History of the Russian Revolution of 1917

... or История Русской Революции 1917, if you speak Russian. Setting the mood for a study of the Russian Revolution.


Russian Civil Wars in a Nutshell

The Russian Revolution of 1905

The Russian Revolution of 1917

The Russian Civil War 1917-1920

Related Timelines

Timeline of World War I - 1914

Timeline of World War I - 1915

Timeline of World War I - 1916

Timeline of World War I - 1917

Timeline of World War I - 1918

Timeline of the Russian Revolution of 1905

Timeline of the Russian Revolution of 1917

Timeline of the Russian Revolution and
Major Wars between 1800 and 2000

Timeline of the Russian Civil War 1917

Timeline of the Russian Civil War 1918

Timeline of the Russian Civil War 1919

Timeline of the Russian Civil War 1920

Faces of the Russian Revolution

Catherine Breshkovsky

Georgy Gapon

Aleksandr Fyodorovich Kerensky

Aleksandr V. Kolchak

Lavr G. Kornilov

Vladimir Ilyich Lenin

Anatoly Vasilyevich Lunacharsky

Georgy Lvov

Aleksey I. Rykov

Joseph Stalin

Leon Trotsky


The Former Russia

Czar Nicholas II


The Romanov Dynasty

About St. Petersburg


The Last Tsars of the Russian Empire

1762-1796 Catherine II the Great

Paul I (Son of Catherine II the Great)

1801-1825 Alexander I
(Son of Paul I)

1825-1855  Nicholas I
(Son of Paul I)

1855-1881 Alexander II
(Son of Nicholas I)

1881-1894  Alexander III
(Son of Alexander II)

Nicholas II (Son of Alexander III)


About Communism

What is Communism?

What is the difference between Marxism and Leninism?

What is the difference between Marxism,
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What is Anarchism?

What is the difference between Communism and Socialism?

About Karl Marx

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About Mao Zedong


Related Documents

Manifesto of the Communist Party, 1848

August Manifesto, 1905

October Manifesto, 1905

Vyborg Manifesto, 1906

Order No. 1, 1917


Related Events

Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905

World War I

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Russian Civil War Maps

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Europe 1910


Map of Europe 1914
1914 Europe:
Allied, Central, and Neutral Powers


Russian Civil War 1917-1920
Map of the Russian Civil War 1917-1920


Map of WWI: Baltic Islands - Oct 10-20, 1917
1917, Oct 10-20 - WWI:
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Map of WWI: Eastern Front 1917-8
 1917-8 WWI: Eastern Front
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1918 World Map
Population Density


World War One Losses
1919 Europe:
World War One Losses


Map of Europe in 1919: the national boundary realignments resulting from the First World War
1919 Europe: the national boundary realignments resulting from the First World War


Russian Civil War 1919 - Farthest Advance of the Anti-Bolsheviks Forces
Russian Civil War 1919:
Farthest Advance of the Anti-Bolshevik Armies


Map of the World in 1919: Political Realignment Following the First World War
1919 World Map:
Political Realignment
Following the First World War





The Russian Civil War 1917-1920

Defending the Victory of the Revolution

In a nutshell, the Russian Civil War was the Bolsheviks' fight to stay in power and to eliminate all competitors.

And the Bolsheviks won.

Who were the Bolsheviks?


Top Photo
The Bolsheviks in Moscow after the
October (November) Revolution 1917. The building in the background is Moscow's State Historical Museum.

US National Archives

Preparing from the get-go to oppress all opponents, the Bolsheviks actually shaped a  totalitarian regime from the start, a foundation that would almost inevitably provoke a civil war.

When exactly was the Russian Civil War fought?


The Russian Civil War - When did it start?
The Russian Civil War started on November 11, 1917 (October 29, 1917
Old Style) with the Cadet Uprising in Petrograd, immediately after the Bolsheviks had come to power by means of their October (November) Revolution.

Check the beginning of the Russian Civil War in the timeline.

Fighting continued with the
Battle of Pulkovo on November 13, 1917 (October 31,1917 old style).

Some historians prefer early summer 1918 as the beginning of the Russian Civil War, because by then troops on either side had become more organized. Larger armies had been mobilized and fighting had become more frequent, justifying the term war rather than occasional skirmishes.

If you are in favor of placing the beginning of the Russian Civil War at this later date, you will probably tag previous smaller armed conflicts as part of the Russian Revolution of 1917.

Some experts are more specific and mark June 7, 1918 (May 25,1918
old style) as the date of the beginning of the Russian Civil War. This was the day of the battle between the Red Army and the Czech Legion at Chelyabinsk.

An argument against this date could be that, by definition, a civil war is a war between opposing groups of citizens of the same country. Strictly speaking, the Red Army encounter with the Czech Legion, former prisoners of war trying to get out of the country, wasn't falling in this category.

However, people in favor of June 7, 1918 as the beginning of the Russian Civil War point to the fact that the Czech Legion took sides in this conflict and that it became a powerful ally to one of the main participants. Thus, this date should qualify.

More under Battles of the Russian Civil War.


The Russian Civil War - When did it end?
The Russian Civil War ended on November 11, 1920 with the defeat of the White Forces, the Red Army's chief enemy, on the Crimean peninsula. The remaining scattered resistance was more or less a matter of mopping up for the Bolsheviks.

Check the end of the Russian Civil War in the timeline.

Some prefer October 25, 1922 as the end of the Russian Civil War. On this day the Japanese withdrew their troops from one of the last anti-Bolshevik footholds, Vladivostok, leaving the town to the Red Army.

Then, some see December 30, 1922 as the end of the Russian Civil War, when the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was formed, the day of the creation of the Soviet Union.

Again others are of the opinion that the Russian Civil War ended in June 1923 with the defeat of the last anti-Bolshevik army. This last clash took place along the Russian mainland coast of the Sea of Okhotsk. Anatoly Pepeliaev, or Pepelyayev, or Pepelyaev, take your pick, led 700 volunteers in their mission to re-capture Yakutsk from the Reds, but he couldn't pull it off. This was the final significant move of the Whites.

 By the way, was the Russian Civil War part of the Russian Revolution?



Who were the main opponents in the Russian Civil War?

Red Vs. White
The Bolsheviks, also called the Reds, fought against the Anti-Bolsheviks, collectively called the Whites.

The Reds
At the time, the political party of the Bolsheviks was called the All-Russian Communist Party.

The terms Red Army, the Reds, the Bolsheviks, the Communists are sometimes used interchangeably.

In politics, the color red is traditionally associated with leftist groups, socialism, and communism. The color red on a flag can symbolize courage, toughness, and revolutionary political views, the bridge being shed blood and violence.

The Whites
The terms White Movement, White Army, White Guards and the like have their roots in the historic connection between the color white and royalism.

Russian emperors were also called White Tsars. The color white has been associated with royalist causes since the late 18th century.

In spite of this general connection that exists between white and royal, it does not mean that everybody connected with the White Movement during the Russian Civil War was in favor of a return to the monarchy. Some were, some weren't.

However, white was a good contrast to red, so the name stuck.

Let's keep in mind that the expression White Movement, when used in context of the Russian Civil War, refers to a group of people with different agendas and different ideas. But what they all had in common was their disagreement with the Red Bolshevik Communists.

Note that the Whites did not get their name from White Russia, which is another name for Belarus, a country in Eastern Europe, nor from the White Russian cocktail, which by the way is delicious and here is the picture.

Let's hear it for the guys


The Red Army
The fighting force of the Bolsheviks was the Red Army, in full the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army, or Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, if you speak Russian.

The Red Army was created on January 28, 1918 (January 15, 1918 old style). In 1946, the Red Army became the Soviet Army.


Red Army - War Ministers, Commanders and Generals

Leon Trotsky

Leon Trotsky

People's Commissar of War (Bolshevik Government)
from March 26, 1918 until January 17, 1925.

Before Trotsky became War Minister, the position of the People's Commissar of War and Navy was occupied by a committee of three. Krylenko, Dybenko and Ovseyenko were the three members of that committee from 1917 until 1918.

When Trotsky became War Minister in March 1918, Krylenko became Commissar of Justice, Dybenko got fired, and Ovseyenko became commander of the troops in Southern Russia.

Nikolay Nikolayevich Dukhonin

Also spelled Nikolai Nikolaevich Dukhonin.
In Russian: Николай Николаевич Духонин

Supreme Commander-in-Chief November 1917.

Nikolay Nikolayevich Dukhonin

Dukhonin was not a Red but somehow it makes sense to list him here because he was in charge of the Russian forces when the Bolsheviks came to power.

Dukhonin had been Kerensky's chief-of-staff. Kerensky made him commander-in-chief when he, Kerensky, had to flee because the Bolsheviks shut down his government.

On November 20, 1917 (November 7, 1917 old style) the Bolsheviks ordered Dukhonin to open peace negotiations with the Central Powers of World War I. Dukhonin refused and got sacked.


Nikolay Vasilyevich Krylenko

Also spelled Nikolai Vasilevich Krilenko.
In Russian: Николай Васильевич Крыленко

Supreme Commander-in-Chief from November 1917 until September 1918. Dukhonin's successor.

People's Commissar of War together with Dybenko and Ovseyenko, before Trotsky took over. From 1918 Commissar of Justice.


Joachim Ioakimovich Vatsetis

Also spelled Vacietis. In Latvian: Jukums Vācietis.
In Russian: Иоаким Иоакимович Вацетис

Supreme Commander-in-Chief from September 1918 until July 1919. Krylenko's successor.

Joachim Ioakimovich Vatsetis

From Latvia. Colonel in the Imperial Army. Commander of the Eastern Front from July 10, 1918. Arrested for conspiracy in July 1919. No evidence was found and Vatsetis was released but not given back his former job.

Sergey Sergeyevich Kamenev

Also spelled Sergei Sergeievich Kamenev
In Russian: Сергей Сергеевич Каменев

Supreme Commander-in-Chief from July 8, 1919 until April 1924. Vatsetis' successor.

S.S. Kamenev (not Lev Kamenev!) became Commander of the Eastern Front in September 1918. He was fired by Trotsky in July 1919. Reinstated shortly thereafter by Lenin and Stalin and against Trotsky's will, this time as Commander-in-chief of all armed forces.

Mikhail Vasilevich Frunze

Also spelled Mikhail Vasilyevich Frunze.
In Russian: Михаил Васильевич Фрунзе

Commander-in-Chief of the Eastern Front
and later of the Southern Front.

Mikhail Vasilevich Frunze

Became People's Commissar of War (Bolshevik Government) after Trotsky in January 1925. Died during surgery on his stomach ulcers in October 1925.



The White Army
The fighting force of the Whites was the White Army.

The White Army was a cocktail of anti-Bolshevik individuals.


The Provisional Government - War Ministers, Commanders and Generals
For the sake of the big picture, we will back up a bit and start with the military leaders of the Provisional Government in March 1917.

Aleksandr Ivanovich Guchkov

Aleksandr Ivanovich Guchkov

Also spelled Alexander Ivanovich Guchkov
In Russian: Александр Иванович Гучков

Minister of War and Navy (Provisional Government)
from March 15 - May 18, 1917.


Aleksandr Fyodorovich Kerensky

Also spelled Alexander Fedorovich Kerenskii
In Russian: Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Ке́ренский

Minister of War and Navy (Provisional Government)
from May 18 - September 12, 1917.

Aleksandr Fyodorovich Kerensky


Alexander Ivanovich Verkhovsky

Alexander Ivanovich Verkhovsky

Also spelled Aleksandr Ivanovich Verkhovski.
In Russian: Александр Иванович Верховский

Minister of War (Provisional Government)
from September 12 - November 6, 1917.


Mikhail Vasilyevich Alekseyev

Also spelled Mikhail Vasilevich Alekseev
In Russian Михаил Васильевич Алексеев

Supreme Commander-in-Chief
from March 15, 1917 until June 4, 1917.

Mikhail Vasilyevich Alekseyev

Together with Kornilov, organized the Volunteer Army in the South.

Aleksey Alekseyevich Brusilov

Aleksey Alekseyevich Brusilov

Also spelled Aleksei Alekseev Brusilov
In Russian Алексей Алексеевич Брусилов

Supreme Commander-in-Chief
from June 4, 1917 until August 1, 1917

Alekseyev's successor.


Lavr Georgiyevich Kornilov
In Russian Лавр Гео́ргиевич Корни́лов

Supreme Commander-in-Chief
from August 1, 1917 until August 27, 1917

Brusilov's successor.

Lavr Georgiyevich Kornilov

Together with Alekseyev, Kornilov organized the Volunteer Army in the South.

Because of the Kornilov Affair, Kerensky dismissed Kornilov and made himself Supreme Commander-in-Chief on August 27, 1917. As such, Kerensky performed until November 7, 1917.

On November 7, 1917, Kerensky had to flee because of the Bolshevik Revolution. He appointed Dukhonin Supreme Commander-in-Chief. Dukhonin held the post from November 7 until November 22, 1917.



After the Bolshevik Revolution - The White Army

Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak

Alexander Kolchak

Also spelled Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak
In Russian Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Колча́к

Leader of the anti-Bolshevik government at Omsk from November 18, 1918 until January 4, 1920. War Minister in said government from October 1918.

Commander of the White forces in the East.

Yevgeny Karlovich Miller

Also spelled Evgeni Karlovich Miller
In Russian Евгений Карлович Миллер

Commander of the White forces in the North until the Reds defeated his army and Miller was seeking acceptable terms of surrender on February 15, 1920.

Yevgeny Karlovich Miller


Anton Ivanovich Denikin

Anton Ivanovich Denikin

In Russian Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин

Commander of the White forces in the South until April 1920.


Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel

Also spelled Peter Nikolaevich Wrangel

Commander of the White forces in the South from April until November 1920, when his army was defeated by the Reds.

Denikin's successor.

Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel


Nikolay Nikolayevich Yudenich

Nikolay Nikolayevich Yudenich

Also spelled Nikolai Nikolaevich Iudenich
In Russian Николай Николаевич Юденич

Commander of the White forces in the Northwest until January 1920 when his army was defeated by the Reds.

See also the
Map of the Russian Civil War.


Who Else Fought in the Russian Civil War Against the Bolsheviks?
Several factions were strong enough to openly challenge the Bolsheviks. Some were for counterrevolution, others just wanted a piece of the power pie. But the Bolsheviks had a no-share policy and anyone claiming anything qualified to be put on their target list.

Target 1 - The Russian Orthodox Church

Easiest of all targets because mostly unarmed. By definition, the Bolsheviks thought religion to be unscientific. Besides, having their government financially support an institution that would compete in influencing the nation was out of the question.

Already in 1917, the Bolsheviks nationalized Orthodox church lands, took over all Orthodox schools, and allowed only civil marriages.

In 1918, a law followed that completely separated church and state, exposing religious organizations to random assaults.

Check this event in the Timeline of the Russian Civil War.

The church lost all its legal rights and brutal harassment followed in form of attacks on priests, arrests and executions of clerics, and looting of churches. The spiritual void was filled with atheist propaganda.

It didn't go downhill for the Russian Orthodox Church alone, but for religion in general throughout the country, no matter what shape or form.


Target 2 - The Socialist Revolutionary Party
The Socialist Revolutionaries (SRs) split over the Bolshevik Revolution (November 1917) into left wing and right wing.

The Left Socialist Revolutionaries

The Right Socialist Revolutionaries

The left wing of the Socialist Revolutionaries was the radical wing and sided with the Bolsheviks on the issue that the power of the Constituent Assembly should be given to the Soviets.

Some of the Left Socialist Revolutionaries even participated in the Bolshevik government. That was until they protested against the  Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and wanted to quit the teamwork.

Consequently, in July 1918, the Bolsheviks called off the coalition and didn't seek a coalition after that.

Check this event in the timeline of the Russian Civil War 1918.

The right wing of the Socialist Revolutionaries was the democratic wing and ran against the Bolsheviks in the election for the Constituent Assembly in November 1917 and won.

Check this event in the timeline of the Russian Civil War.

When the newly elected Constituent Assembly convened for the first time in January 1918, it was dissolved by the Bolsheviks.

In protest and secretly, the  Komuch was formed.


By the end of the Russian Civil War, the Socialist Revolutionary Party had vanished, left wing and right wing.


Target 3 - The Komuch
Komuch is short for Комите́т чле́нов Всероссийского Учреди́тельного собра́ния, which means Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly in Russian. The committee was composed of Socialist Revolutionaries with headquarters at Samara. It was formed in protest of the Bolsheviks' dispersion of the Constituent Assembly in January 1918.

Check this event in the timeline of the Russian Civil War.

The Komuch had mainly two points on their agenda.

1 - They were against the
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.

2 - They wanted to restore the Constituent Assembly.

The Komuch set up an anti-Bolshevik government on the Volga on June 8, 1918. The Komuch also mustered an army, the People's Army.


Target 4 - The Mensheviks
Together with the Right Socialist Revolutionaries (
see above) the Mensheviks formed a joined opposition.

Where did the Mensheviks come from?


Target 5 - The Czechoslovak Legion
Also called Czech Legion. These were approx. 30,000 soldiers, formerly fighting in the Austrian-Hungarian army who were captured by the Russians. The Austrian-Hungarian army is also called the Habsburg Army because the
 Habsburg dynasty ruled the country.

By the way, one of these soldiers was Ludvík Svoboda who would become president of Czechoslovakia in 1968.

Back to the prisoners of war.

The Provisional Government under Kerensky released these troops from their prison camps, armed them, and wished them all the best and a safe trip home.

Deserters from the Austro-Hungarian Army and others joined the Czech Legion and eventually this group counted approx. 100,000 heads.

The goal of the Czech Legion was to get to the Western Front before the end of WWI, to claim national independency from Austria-Hungary, and to fight with the Allies against their former employer, the Austrian government.

Here is Austria-Hungary on a map. Prague, the capital of today's Czech Republic, is positioned in square "eH".

Europe 1871-1914
1871-1914 Europe
Click to enlarge

And here is a map of the Allies and the Central Powers in World War One.

Map of Europe 1914
1914 Europe: Allied, Central, and Neutral Powers
Click to enlarge


The question for the Czech Legion was, how to get back home. It was impossible to take the direct way back through the battle lines of WWI. So, the idea was to reach Vladivostok by Trans-Siberian Railway and to depart from Vladivostok via ship.

Here is a map of the Trans-Siberian Railway as well as the departure and destination points of the voyage of the Czech troops.

The Czech Legion's way home from Russia - Map of the departure and destination points
The Czech Legion's way home from Russia
Map of the departure and destination points

Click to view original World Map 1919 (enlarged)


Now here was the predicament.

In March 1918, the trip was approved by the Bolshevik government. But some of the Bolsheviks en route became extremely sensitive upon seeing an armed non-Russian group maneuvering through their countryside. And rightly so. Although not taking sides in Russian politics, this outfit was disciplined and knew how to fight, something Russian revolutionary leaders could only dream about those days.

The Reds tagged them as potential counterrevolutionaries. Skirmishes ensued.

At the end of May, the Bolshevik government ordered the Czechoslovak Legion to surrender their arms. The Czechs preferred not to become prisoners again, refused the order, took control of the trans-Siberian railroad, teamed up with the Right Socialist Revolutionaries in Samara, and consequently found themselves in the middle of the Russian Civil War.

Check this in the timeline of the Russian Civil War.

Finally arriving in Vladivostok, the Czechs took the boat direction San Francisco, United States. From there, cross country, across the Atlantic and eventually back to Europe. The departure of the entire corps from Russia took from May to December 1919.


Target 6 - The Siberian Army
Anti-Bolshevik troops from Omsk, led by
Alexander Kolchak.


Target 7 - The Ukrainian Army
The Ukraine was ready for independence and declared itself a sovereign republic in 1918. Symon Vasylevych Petlyura led the Ukrainian Army.


Target 8 - The Don Army
Anti-Bolshevik Cossacks from the Don, led by Pyotr Nikolayevich Krasnov.


Target 9 - Other Independence Seeking Nations
Azerbaijan declared independence in 1918, and so did Georgia. The Soviet Republic of Armenia was established in 1920. The Reds had all of the above back in the fold by 1936.


Target 10 - The Black Army
Anarchists in the Ukraine, led by Nestor Ivanovich Makhno, who fought very effectively as guerrillas. At least for a while. The Blacks were against Reds and Whites alike.

What is anarchism?

What is guerrilla warfare?


Target 11 - The Green Army
Around 40,000, maybe more, angry peasants from the Tambov region who, siding with neither Red nor White, became brothers-in-arms in August 1920. Also referred to as the Tambov Uprising or the Tambov Rebellion.

Leader of the rebellion was Petr Mikhailovich Tokmakov, also spelled Pyotr Mikhailovich Tokmakov or Peter Mikhailovich Tokmakov. Tokmakov was killed in battle in early 1921.

Here is Tambov on a Google map.

Map Location of Tambov - City and Region in Western Russia
Map Location of Tambov - City and Region in Western Russia
Google Map


Target 12 - The Basmachi
Also spelled Basmachestvo. Muslim guerrilla fighters based at Tashkent, located in today's Uzbekistan. The Basmachi Revolt started in 1917 and was crushed by 1926.


Target 13 - The Central Powers and the Allies of WWI
White forces also received support from foreign powers.

Before their surrender in WWI on November 11, 1918, the Germans helped out with arms and ammunition.

France and Britain disliked the Bolsheviks as well and assisted the Whites. In fact,  Churchill became famous for his fiery hate of the Bolsheviks.

What about WWI strategies?

The Allies of WWI had their panties in a bunch on the Eastern Front and were desperately craving a breather. Their goal was to create a Western Front that would keep the Central Powers busy and distracted. In March 1918, and with the permission from the Soviets, the Allies landed at Murmansk.

Sly Japanese forces thought they might as well and landed at Vladivostok, without any permission. However, the Japanese had an agreement with the Americans.

The U.S. sent troops to Archangel (Archangelsk) calling it the Polar Bear Expedition and to Vladivostok on the Siberian Expedition. The Siberian Expedition was organized to keep an eye on Japan, who was playing with thoughts of territorial expansion.

Here once more the map that shows Allies and Central Powers of WWI.

Map of Europe 1914
1914 Europe: Allied, Central, and Neutral Powers
Click to enlarge


The Events Unfold
Here are the timelines of the Russian Civil War 1917 - 1920.

Timeline of the Russian Civil War 1917

Timeline of the Russian Civil War 1918

Timeline of the Russian Civil War 1919

Timeline of the Russian Civil War 1920


The Battles of the Russian Civil War

November 11, 1917
(October 29,1917
Old Style)

Cadet Uprising, Petrograd


November 13, 1917
(October 31,1917
Old Style)

Battle of Pulkovo


April 10 - 13, 1918

Battle of Yekaterinodar


August - Mid-September 1918

First Battle of Tsaritsyn
also called
Siege of Tsaritsyn
(Later, Tsaritsyn becomes Stalingrad, it is today's Volgograd)


August 13, 1918

Battle of Sviiazhsk


September 22 - October 15, 1918

Second Battle of Tsaritsyn


December 1918

Third Battle of Tsaritsyn


Mid-January 1919

Fourth Battle of Tsaritsyn


September 26, 1919

Battle of Peregonovka (Battle of Perehonivka)


October 13, 1919

Battle of Orel


August 14 - 16, 1920

Battle of Warsaw
This battle was part of the Russo-Polish War


November 7 - 12, 1920

Battle of Perekop



How Many People Died in the Russian Civil War?
Historians estimate the number of combined casualties of the Russian Civil War (military, civilian, famine, and disease) to have been a total of between eight and ten million deaths.


The Outcome of the Russian Civil War
The Red Army defeated the last big batch of White Army troops, who had fought under Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel, in November 1920 and the Russian Civil War was officially over, won by the Bolsheviks.

  • One main reason for the victory of the Red Army was their military superiority.

  • Another reason was their political focus. The Reds had a common ideology whereas the Whites were only united because of their common dislike of the Reds.

  • A third reason was the strategic advantage of the Reds who had to defend a core area, whereas the Whites had coordination troubles especially with communications and logistics because of the large distances that kept them apart.

For the Russian nation, the Bolshevik victory of the Civil War meant the absolute rule of the Communist Party.

The Communist Party, in turn, was controlled by its Central Committee. The Central Committee was managed by the  Politburo, making the Chairman of the Politburo the potentially most powerful man in the country.

Stalin would be the man ready to exploit this loophole. The Russians therefore dethroned an absolute ruler in favor of an absolute ruler who didn't need a throne.


The Economy During the Russian Civil War
How do you switch from capitalism to socialism? The Bolsheviks' attempt is called War Communism.

What is War Communism?


What Happened After the Russian Civil War 1917-1920?
After winning the Russian Civil War, the Bolsheviks had to ease up on their politics in order to keep the general populace alive. The compromise was called the  New Economic Policy (NEP) and was in place from 1921 until 1928.

Lenin died in January 1924 and Josef Stalin was the next leader of the Communist Party and the country. Stalin kept his comrades on their toes by means of his Great Purges of 1937 - 1938.





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