PEOPLE IN HISTORY          WARS, BATTLES AND REVOLUTIONS          MAP ARCHIVE          FAMOUS SPEECHES

 
 

GOVERNMENTS IN HISTORY          HISTORIC DOCUMENTS          HISTORIC PLACES AND LOCATIONS          ALL-TIME RECORDS IN HISTORY

 
 

SOURCE TEXT          SOURCE DOCUMENTS          HISTORY DICTIONARY          TIMELINES          ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORDS

 
   
 

HOME   -   WARS, BATTLES & REVOLUTIONS   -   THIRTY YEARS' WAR

 
 

 

Explorers, Scientists & Inventors

Musicians, Painters & Artists

Poets, Writers & Philosophers

Native Americans & The Wild West

First Ladies

Popes

Troublemakers

Historians

Archaeologists

Royal Families

Tribes & Peoples

 

Famous Speeches in History

 


Assassinations in History
Who got slain, almost slain, when, how, why, and by whom?

Go to the Assassination Archive
 


King John of England 1167-1216

 

Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible 1530 - 1584

 

Adolf Hitler 1889 - 1945


 

 

Online History Dictionary A - Z

Online History Dictionary A - Z

 

All-Time Records in History
What was the bloodiest battle, the battle with the least casualties, who was the greatest military leader?

Go to Records in History

 

Wars, Battles & Revolutions in History

 

 

About Mata Hari

 

The Divine Almanac
Who all roamed the heavens in olden times? The Who's Who of ancient gods.

Check out the Divine Almanac

 

Forms of Government

 


The Ancient Greeks in a Nutshell

 


All Things Nixon

 

Ever Wondered How to
Tutor a Problem Child?

Observe and learn from Seneca.

Suicide optional.

 

Fall of the Bastille - July 14, 1789

 

Joan of Arc in a Nutshell

 

   

Thirty Years' War 1618 - 1648

The Thirty Years' War is sometimes also called The European Civil War. It was a series of battles fought over most of Europe, although the primary battleground was Germany.

Here are two maps of Germany at the beginning of the Thirty Years' War:


Germany at the Commencement of the Thirty Years' War 1618.
1618 Germany
Click map to enlarge


Map of the Holy Roman Empire 1618
Holy Roman Empire 1618


 


When Did the Thirty Years' War Begin?

On May 23, 1618, a crowd of Protestants stormed the royal castle in Prague and threw two members of the Catholic government and their secretary out the window.

This incident became known as the Defenestration of Prague and marked the official beginning of the Thirty Years' War.

 


The Defenestration of Prague in 1618
The Defenestration of Prague in 1618

 

Although none of the three people died, this incident set in motion a series of events that stirred up almost the whole of Europe for 30 years.


Map of Germany 1619
GERMANY 1619
Click to enlarge


 

When Did the Thirty Years' War End?

The war officially ended on October 24, 1648, with the Peace of Westphalia.


Germany, Peace of Westphalia, 1648
1648 Germany - Peace of Westphalia


 

What Impact Did the Thirty Years' War Have?

The Thirty Years' War basically shaped the map of modern Europe as we know it today. It also changed European balance of power radically.

The member states of the
Holy Roman Empire were granted full sovereignty. The essential structure of modern Europe as a community of sovereign states was established.

After the two World Wars, the Thirty Years' War has been the third most traumatic period in the history of Germany.

 

THE BATTLES OF THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR

Approximately 40 battles were fought during the Thirty Years’ War. Some of them were:

The Battle of White Mountain, also called Battle of White Hill, November 8, 1620. Imperial victory. Ferdinand II won, Frederick V lost.

Map of the Thirty Years War: Frederick's Defeat 1620
Thirty Years War: Frederick's Defeat 1620



The Battle of Breitenfeld - September 17, 1631. The first major victory for the Protestants. Gustav II Adolf of Sweden sent Ferdinand II and the Catholics packing.

Map of the Battle of Breitenfeld - September 17, 1631 - Initial Dispositions
Map of the Battle of Breitenfeld - Initial Disposition

Map of the Battle of Breitenfeld - September 17, 1631 - Opening Moves
Battle of Breitenfeld - Opening Moves

Map of the Battle of Breitenfeld - September 17, 1631 - Stopping the Attack
Battle of Breitenfeld - Stopping the Attack

Map of the Battle of Breitenfeld - September 17, 1631 - Final Moves
Battle of Breitenfeld - Final Moves

 

The Battle of Lützen - November 16, 1632. Imperial defeat. Ferdinand II lost, the Swedes won but lost their king Gustavus Adolphus.

Map of the Thirty Years War: 1630-1632
1630-1632 Thirty Years War - Prelude to the Battle of Lutzen

Map of the Battle of Lützen (Lutzen) - November 16, 1632
Map of the Battle of Lützen (Lutzen)



The Battle of Nördlingen - September 5 - 6, 1634. Decisive victory for the Empire and Spain over the Swedes. This battle ended the Swedish domination in southern Germany, and forced
Richelieu to bring France into active participation in the war.


The Battle of Wittstock - October 4, 1636. Swedish victory, led by General Johan Banér.


The Battle of Rocroi - May 19, 1643. The French army of 22,000 men, led by the Duke D'Enghien, defeat the Spanish army of 26,000 men, led by Don Francisco de Melo.

Map of the Battle of Rocroi - May 19, 1643
Map of the Battle of Rocroi


Germany and the Thirty Years War, 1630 - 1648
GERMANY 1630 - 1648
Click to enlarge




 

Who Won the Thirty Years' War? Who Lost?

The winners of the war were Sweden, which gained control over the Baltic; France, which became the chief Western power; and the United Netherlands, which became an independent republic.

The losers of the war were Austria and Spain, which lost their dominant political positions. Spain also lost the Netherlands. The ultimate loser of the war, however, was Germany. Its cities, economy and population suffered greatly.

Estimates vary as to the exact number of German lives lost in the Thirty Years’ War. Some rough estimates are as high as 12 million.

And here is another map of Germany in 1648:

Germany Shewing the Territorial Provisions of the Peace of Westphalia 1648.
Germany 1648
Click map to enlarge



 

Why Was the Thirty Years' War Fought?

Originally, the issue was of a religious nature. Protestants, and later Calvinists, wanted religious freedom from the ruling Catholics.

The matter soon got out of hand because other issues were involved, including the struggle for political, territorial, and commercial control.


Here is a timeline of the Thirty Years' War.



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The American Revolution - Its Casualties, Its Battles, Its Impact

 


People in History

People in History A

People in History B

People in History Ca - Char

People in History Chas - Cz

People in History D

People in History E

People in History F

People in History G

People in History H

People in History I

People in History J - K

People in History L

People in History M

People in History N - O

People in History P - Q

People in History R

People in History S

People in History T

People in History U - Z


Explorers, Scientists & Inventors

Musicians, Painters & Artists


Poets, Writers & Philosophers

Native Americans & The Wild West

First Ladies

Popes

Troublemakers

Historians

Archaeologists

Royal Families

Tribes & Peoples

 


Wars, Battles & Revolutions

Wars & Revolutions A

Wars & Revolutions B - E

Wars & Revolutions F - G

Wars & Revolutions H - J

Wars & Revolutions K - O

Wars & Revolutions P - R

Wars & Revolutions S - Z

Wars & Revolutions Chronological

Battles A - C

Battles D - G

Battles H - L


Battles M - P

Battles Q - Z

Battles Ancient Times - 1499

Battles 1500 - 1699

Battles 1700 - 1799

Battles 1800 - 1899

Battles 1900 - Today
 

Picture Archive

History Pictures A - C

History Pictures D - M

History Pictures N - Z


 


Speech Archive

Speeches by Topic

Speeches by Speaker

Speeches by Date

Speeches by Women

Speeches by African-Americans

Speeches by U.S. Presidents


Miscellaneous

History Dictionary A - F

History Dictionary G - Z

Source Text - By Title

Source Text - By Author

Historic Documents A - K

Historic Documents L - Z

Historic Documents Chronological

Assassinations in History

Voyages in History

Castles & Palaces


Music in History

History Movies

Research

Bored?

Kids & History

Browse

About Us

Write Me


 


Sitemaps

Sitemap 01   Sitemap 02   Sitemap 03    Sitemap 04   Sitemap 05   Sitemap 06  
Sitemap 07   Sitemap 08   Sitemap 09    Sitemap 10   Sitemap 11   Sitemap 12
Sitemap 13   Sitemap 14   Sitemap 15    Sitemap 16   Sitemap 17   Sitemap 18
Sitemap 19   Sitemap 20   Sitemap 21    Sitemap 22   Sitemap 23   Sitemap 24


Site Search

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


HISTORY IN A NUTSHELL

 

© 2014 Emerson Kent