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HOME   -   PEOPLE IN HISTORY A-Z   -   FRANCISCO I. MADERO

 
   


Francisco Ignacio Madero, 1873 - 1913

 

Francisco I. Madero 1873 - 1913

Francisco Ignacio Madero was the president of Mexico from 1911 - 1913.

Originally, Francisco Madero was a landowner in northern Mexico.

Madero decided to give it a go at the presidential elections of 1910.

But president  Porfirio Díaz won instead, as dictators do. Next thing Madero knew, he found himself in jail in San Luis Potosí.



Madero managed to escape to San Antonio, Texas, United States, disguised as a railway worker. 

While in the States, Madero wrote his manifesto, the Plan of San Luis Potosí. Madero declared a revolution was necessary and surrounded himself with armed men who shared this opinion. The entire outfit came back into Mexico and was ready to rumble.

In Mexico, many unhappy peasants, aka potential guerrillas, agreed with the Plan of San Luis Potosí, among them  Ambrosio Figueroa,  Pancho Villa and  Emiliano Zapata. They joined forces and it worked — a revolution was launched.

Dictator Diaz resigned on May 25, 1911.


Francisco Madero
Francisco Madero

 

Madero managed to sit down on the presidential chair, but it was a hot seat. General  Victoriano Huerta fancied it plenty and had Madero thrown in jail.

What went wrong?

Madero was politically a moderate. His policy of "fairness and honesty" would have worked in a perfect world but the dirty chaos of the Mexican Revolution favored the less scrupulous.

Madero was assassinated by Huerta's men in Mexico City on February 22, 1913. The official version was that he was shot while trying to escape.

Here is Harold Gordon as Francisco Madero at that very moment in the brilliant 1952 movie  Viva Zapata!

Eliminating Francisco Madero
Harold Gordon as Francisco Madero
Viva Zapata! 1953
20th Century Fox

 

And back to the real Madero:

FRANCISCO MADERO (SEATED)
FRANCISCO MADERO (SEATED)
 

 

THE PLAN OF SAN LUIS POTOSI

In his Plan of San Luis Potosí, Madero declared the 1910 elections void. He also declared himself provisional president until free elections could be held. 

Last but not least, Madero sets Sunday, November 20, 1910, 6 PM, as the date and hour when the revolution should begin.

The Plan of San Luis Potosí was Madero's manifesto. It was named after the Mexican town in which he was thrown into jail by the Diaz regime and from which Madero had escaped and had fled direction San Antonio, Texas.

The publication was backdated to October 5, 1910, the last full day Madero had spent in Mexico, in order to avoid accusations that the U.S. encouraged a Mexican rebellion. The document was issued from San Antonio, Texas.

 Here is the original Spanish transcript of the Plan of San Luis Potosi.

 

FRANCISCO MADERO'S FAMILY

Francisco Madero's father was Francisco Madero Hernández.

Francisco Madero's mother was Mercedes González Treviño.

Francisco Madero was his parents' first child. Here is his birth certificate:

Francisco Madero Birth Certificate
Francisco Madero Birth Certificate
INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTUDIOS HISTÓRICOS DE LAS REVOLUCIONES DE MÉXICO
Click image to enlarge

 

Francisco Madero had 15 siblings:

1. Francisco Ignacio Madero

2. Gustavo Adolfo Madero

3. Mercedes Madero

4. Magdalena Madero

5. Alfonso Madero

6. Emilio Madero

7. Rafaela Madero

8. Raúl Madero (died in childhood)

9. Gabriel Madero

10. Julio Madero

11. Angela Madero

12. Raúl Madero

13. Evaristo Madero

14. Maria Luisa Madero (died in childhood)

15. Ramiro Madero (died in childhood)

16. Carlos Benjamin Madero

 


The Maderos: Gustavo, Francisco Sr. and Francisco Jr.
The Maderos: Gustavo, Francisco Sr. and Francisco Jr.

 

Francisco Madero's wife was Sara Pérez.
 

FRANCISCO I. MADERO AND HIS WIFE SARA PEREZ
FRANCISCO I. MADERO AND HIS WIFE SARA PEREZ
 

 

 



FRANCISCO MADERO'S SHORT BIOGRAPHY
 

October 30, 1873

 

Birth of Francisco Ygnacio Madero in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico

1886 - 1888

 

Studies acriculture at Mount St. Mary's College, Emmitsburg, Maryland

 

 

Studies business management at HEC (Hautes Études Commerciales) Jouy-en-Josas, near París

 

 

Studies one semester at the University of California at Berkeley

1903

 

Marries Sara Pérez

1904 - 1905

 

Helped organize the Benito Juárez Democratic Club and a political party in Coahuila

1908

 

Publishes La sucesión presidencial en 1910

1909

 

Founder of the Partido Nacional Antirreeleccionista, challenging Diaz as presidential candidate

1910

 

Imprisoned at San Luis Potosí

October 6, 1910

 

Escapes from prison and flees to Texas, US

November 6, 1911 -
February 19, 1913

 

President of Mexico

February 22, 1913

 

Death in Mexico City


 

FRANCISCO MADERO
FRANCISCO I. MADERO