Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata at the Presidential Palace in Mexico City, December 6, 1914
Mexican History 1914

Mexican Revolution Timeline - Year 1914

January 1 - 4, 1914
Battle of Ojinaga

January 18, 1914
Emiliano Zapata signs a treaty with Julián Blanco, the rebel chief in Guerrero.

March 9, 1914
The allied rebel force, led by Julián Blanco, Jesús Salgado, and Heliodoro Castillo, surround the city of Chilpancingo.

March 14, 1914

Emiliano Zapata and his men close in on the city of Chilpancingo.

March 16, 1914
Pancho Villa advances from Chihuahua City toward Torreón, which had been reoccupied by the federals. Riding among Villa's outfit was General Felipe Ángeles, now a commander of Villa's Division of the North.

What's Felipe doing here, wasn't he sent to prison?  See February 18, 1913.

Yes, but after Francisco I. Madero's assassination, Victoriano Huerta let Felipe go and sent him to Europe, to France of all places. Felipe sneaked back into Mexico and joined Venustiano Carranza's rebel army. In fact, Carranza made Felipe Secretary of War. Also fighting for Carranza was Pancho Villa. Pancho and Felipe became close friends. So close, that one day in the future Pancho will say about Angeles that "he taught me there was such a thing as mercy."

Anyway, that's the reason why they are riding together today.

March 17, 1914
Agustín Breton succeeds Adolfo Jiménez Castro as governor of Morelos.

March 22 - 26, 1914
Battle of Gómez Palacio.
Pancho Villa takes Gómez Palacio, a city in the state of Durango. About 1,000 men are dead and 3,000 wounded. Villa is on the roll and sends his troops direction Torreón.

March 23, 1914

Chilpancingo falls to
Emiliano Zapata.

March 26 - April 2, 1914
Second Battle of Torreón. Villa wins.

April 6, 1914
General Cartón aka The "Victor" of Huautla gets shot.

Emiliano Zapata sets up headquarters at Tixtla.

April 8, 1914
Rebel leader Jesús Salgado and his men take Iguala.

Zapata moves headquarters to Tlaltizapán. Zapata's permanent problem is the lack of arms and ammunition.

April 9, 1914
For years, the U.S. maintained warships in the Mexican Gulf. Today, a party of US sailors including their captain went ashore at the port of Tampico to purchase oil for their gunboat USS Dolphin.

As they had landed in a restricted dock area, the federal commander of the town Pablo González decides to detain the Americans for an hour and a half. He then escorts them back to their whaleboat. He apologizes for the incident but Rear Admiral Henry T. Mayo and later US President
Woodrow Wilson demand a formal apology in the form of a hoisted U.S. flag accompanied by a 21 gun salute.

Mexican president Victoriano Huerta refuses and US president Wilson tells his Marines to pack their bundles and get ready for a little excursion.

April 14, 1914
Woodrow Wilson orders the rest of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet to Tampico.

April 15, 1914
Pancho Villa enters San Pedro De Las Colonias.

April 21 - November 14, 1914
Veracruz Incident. American forces occupy the Mexican port of Veracruz, Mexico's principal port.

AMERICAN TROOPS IN VERACRUZ - April 21 - November 14, 1914
Library of Congress (?)

April 22, 1914
The port of Veracruz is firmly in American hands. Nineteen people killed, 70 wounded. Hundreds of Mexican casualties.

The US Embassy in Mexico was closed at the request of the Mexican authorities. Nelson O'Shaughnessy sticks around in his function as chargé d'affaires for the US, which basically means temp ambassador.

April 24, 1914
Pablo González takes Monterrey without any resistance.

US President Woodrow Wilson authorizes mobilization of the regular army 54,000 troops strong and 150,000 National Guards.

As a result, a huge anti-American wave sweeps throughout Mexico. All totalitarians, revolutionaries, and counter revolutionaries, no matter how hostile towards each other, make collectively known that they'd rather kiss Huerta on the lips than sit back and let the U.S. invade their country.

American properties are burnt everywhere. This is not a good time for American honeymoons in Cancun.

End of April 1914
Only Jojutla and Cuernavaca are left as federal strongholds in  Morelos.
 Emiliano Zapata besieges Jojutla with a troop ratio of 3 to 1. The 1,200 federal troops are defeated and Zapata takes the town.

Mid-May 1914
 Zapata moves north towards Cuernavaca. Meanwhile, Pancho Villa and  Venustiano Carranza have disagreements.

May 20, 1914
Pancho Villa takes Saltillo.

June 2, 1914
 Zapata starts the Siege of Cuernavaca. The surrounded federal troops are led by General Romero.

June 9, 1914
About 2,000 men under Colonel Hernandez manage to force their way through to and into the besieged city of Cuernavaca.

June 10, 1914
 Zapata orders to pull back and to retreat into the hills. Only a few troops are to remain there for the siege, the rest moves direction Mexico City.

June 13, 1914
Pancho Villa resigns his post in Venustiano Carranza's army. Carranza is happy and asks his generals to pick Pancho's successor.

June 14, 1914
Carranza's generals declare that they are not content with  Pancho Villa's leaving.

June 17, 1914
Without consulting
Carranza,  Pancho Villa moves on with his men toward Zacatecas.

Unknown to the Zapatistas, the Congress of the Union dissolves the state of Morelos and establishes it in the Federal territory under the same name.

June 21, 1914
Pan American Union director
 John Barrett attends conference with several "Mexicans of prominence, representing both sides of the present controversy" of finding a new leader for Mexico.

In a New York Times article the next day, Barrett comments on "finding a suitable man for provisional President - one whom both sides cannot successfully prove to be unsatisfactory. It may be difficult to find one whom both sides will readily accept without any question, but eventually one will be found against whom valid and final objections cannot be logically maintained in the face of the demand of all America for peace. Certainly such a man exists, and I believe that the mediators will be able to name him within the next three weeks."

June 23, 1914
Battle of Zacatecas.
 Pancho Villa takes Zacatecas. He claims that only 200 of the 12,000 defenders of the city managed to escaped.

End of June 1914
 Zapata's army moves into the Federal District.

July 4, 1914
Villa-Carranza peace conference at Torreon. See photo below.

Villa-Carranza peace conference at Torreon July 4, 1914
Villa-Carranza peace conference, Torreon
Left to right: Miguel Silva, Antonio J. Villarreal, Isabel Robles,
 Rogue Gonzalez Garza, Ernesto Meade Fierro, Yngeniero Manuel Bonilla, Cesareo Castro, Luis Caballero

July 6, 1914
Alavaro Obregón takes Guadalajara.

The Zapatistas take Cuernavaca.

Genovevo de la O takes  Juvencio Robles' seat as  Morelos governor.

July 9, 1914
Huerta begins to prepare his escape. He makes Chief Justice Francisco S. Carvajal Secretary of Foreign Relations.

July 15, 1914
Huerta submits his resignation to the Chamber of Deputies and flees to Puerto México.

July 17, 1914
Huerta boards the German cruiser Dresden and sails into exile in Spain.

July 18, 1914
Huerta's resignation didn't change a thing for  Zapata. He keeps on going and attacks Milpa Alta.

In the north, the Constitutionalists defeat the government forces and capture San Luis Potosí.

July 19, 1914
 Zapata issues the Act of Ratification of the Plan of Ayala. The essential points being:

  • The agrarian provisions of the Plan of Ayala must become constitutional.

  • The campaign will not end until all characters of the old regime are thrown out and replaced by a new government consisting of men devoted to the Plan of Ayala.

July 20, 1914
Milpa Alta captured by

July 28, 1914
Carranza's representatives visit with  Zapata. Zapata sticks to his Plan of Ayala and doesn't accept deviations.

August 11, 1914
Carranza takes the train to Teoloyucan to chat with the enemy. Teoloyucan is located only 20 miles north of Mexico City. The interim president Carvajal had already fled into exile on Huerta's heels.

Carranza reaches agreement that his constitutionalist forces, led by Alavaro Obregón, would take over Mexico City without bloodshed. The federal troops would stay put until the last minute to prevent Zapata's troops to enter the city first. When Carranza's men will be in position, the federal troops will withdraw direction Puebla, which is in other words direction  Zapata.

Obregon insists that the Feds must leave arms and ammunition behind.

August 13, 1914
The War Department surrenders the federal army to
Obregon at Teoloyucan. On the same day,  Zapata's troops enter Cuernavaca, state capital of  Morelos.

August 14, 1914
Lorenzo Vázquez is the new governor of  Morelos. He will remain as such until May 2, 1916.

August 15, 1914
Obregon enters Mexico City meeting no opposition. The Federal Army was disbanded by the Convenios de Teoloyucán (Treaty of Teoloyucan).

August 16, 1914
Carranza writes  Zapata, grants him a personal interview. Zapata writes back to meet at Yautepec.

August 21, 1914
 Emiliano Zapata writes to Lucio Blanco "that this Carranza does not inspire much confidence in me. I see in him much ambition, and an inclination to fool the people."

Zapata writes to  Pancho Villa, warning him that Carranza's ambitions were very dangerous and likely to precipitate another war.

Last week of August 1914
Venustiano Carranza sends an envoy to meet with  Zapata and his men at Cuernavaca. Carranza's agents indicate Carranza's refusal of the agrarian policies insisted upon by Zapata and his men. They are subsequently made hostages to guarantee safe transit of  Pancho Villa's emissaries through Mexico City.

August 25, 1914
 Pancho Villa's representatives meet with  Emiliano Zapata. Zapata gives them a letter to Villa, stating that the "time has come for a provisional government to be established."

Late in August 1914
 Emiliano Zapata publishes another manifest, showing his disappointment, and declaring that he won't yield to the false promises of the Constitutionalist leaders.

Historian John Womack notes that "Carranza was politically obsolete. ... In  Morelos now allegiance to a man like Carranza was impossible. ... Villa felt the same and he received Zapata's letter with sympathetic agreement."

September 3, 1914
 Pancho Villa meets with Alavaro Obregón, the leader of the Constitutionalist advance into Mexico City on August 15, at Chihuahua City. As a result, the men came up with a 9-point plan designed to eliminate the danger of further war.

One stipulation was that Venustiano Carranza should be interim president and charged with arranging presidential elections, which would exclude Carranza himself.

In the meantime, Carranza felt that the presidential chair was rather comfy. Why move.

September 5, 1914
Carranza press interview. He refuses to accept the Plan of Ayala. He refuses to agree that a revolutionary convention assembles to name an interim president. But he says he is willing to discuss an agrarian reform and he invites  Zapata's Army of the South to send a delegation to do so.

The occasional shooting breaks out between Constitutionalists and Zapatistas.

September 8, 1914
 Zapata issues a decree from Cuernavaca, stating that it is time for Article 8 of the Plan of Ayala, which refers to total nationalization of goods belonging to the landlords who oppose the Plan of Ayala. Rural property taken in this way will be handed to pueblos or widows and orphans of the revolution who are in need of land.

September 30, 1914
 Pancho Villa prepares to move south and issues a Manifesto for the Mexican People. Villa invites all Mexicans to join him in replacing the Constitutionalist leader Venustiano Carranza with a civilian government.

Early October 1914
Alavaro Obregón and his men confer with  Pancho Villa emissaries at Zacatecas. It is decided to hold a full convention representing all elements of the revolution on October 10 at Aguascalientes (Aguas Calientes) with the objective to restore unity and to plan Mexico's future.

October 10, 1914
Revolutionary Convention of Aguascalientes. The revolutionary convention commences at the  Morelos theater in Aguascalientes. Zapata does not attend personally but sends an observer, later a delegation. See October 23. This convention will last until November 13, 1914.

October 12, 1914
Third day of the revolutionary convention. General Felipe Ángeles proposes to send once more a formal invitation to the Zapatistas.

October 14, 1914
The Conventionalists declare themselves the sovereign authority in the country.

October 15, 1914
Felipe Ángeles agrees to go to Cuernavaca himself and to persuade the Zapatistas to attend.

October 19, 1914
Felipe Ángeles arrives at Cuernavaca.

October 20, 1914
Felipe Ángeles meets with
 Zapata. Zapata explains his predicament. The revolutionary convention has yet to accept the Plan of Ayala.

October 22, 1914
Top level conference at the
 Zapata headquarters. Also attending is Felipe Ángeles. A compromise is reached: Not the complete Plan of Ayala as such, but merely the principles of the Plan need to be recognized by the convention.

October 23, 1914
A delegation of Zapatistas, 26 men, leaves for Aguascalientes.
 Zapata stays at Cuernavaca. Leader of the delegation is Paulino Martínez.

Zapatista delegation to the Convention of Aguascalientes
Zapatista delegation - the Convention of Aguascalientes
Front, second from left: Paulino Martinez.
Third from left: Antonio Diaz Soto y Gama

October 24, 1914
 Zapata delegation reaches Mexico City.

October 25, 1914
 Zapata delegation boards a train for Aguascalientes where a welcome committee expects them. BUT the train doesn't stop there. It runs all the way to Guadalupe,  Pancho Villa's headquarters.

The Zapata delegation double checks that Pancho Villa still got the interests of the southern movement at heart. Reassured, they shuffle on back towards Aguascalientes. This time the train stops at Aguascalientes.

October 26, 1914
 Zapata delegation arrives at Aguascalientes.

October 27, 1914
Paulino Martínez speaks well at the revolutionary convention. He mentions Land and Liberty, Land and Justice, and Land for All! He is not interested in riches or the presidential chair. He points out that all this is probably not going to happen with
Carranza in the lead. The only true direction would be to accept the  Plan of Ayala.

Next speaker is Soto y Gama, a Zapatista, 33 years old, a lawyer. His speech is a disaster. He tries to point out that individual honor is more important than mythical honor to a symbol, and to underline his point he seizes the flag, at which point the entire house starts to freak.

Eduardo Hay, a Carrancista and a very smart man, takes advantage of Soto's mistake and gets the people revved up against the Zapatistas.

Quarrels continue for the next four days between the Carrancistas, the Zapatistas, and the Villistas. The formerly moderates are drawn to the Carrancistas after Soto's blunder.

 Pancho Villa announces that he is ready to retire if Carranza would do so as well.

October 29, 1914
Alavaro Obregón reads a message from Carranza to the Convention. Carranza agrees to retire if simultaneously  Villa and  Zapata retire.

October 30, 1914
The Conventions excludes the general public and votes overwhelmingly in favor of
 Villa's and Carranza's retirement.

November 1, 1914
Carranza is not going to retire as he claims his conditions haven't been complied with and  Villa is not going to retire as Carranza is not gonna.

Carranza leaves the capital for Tlaxcala.

November 2, 1914
The anti-Carranza part of the Convention chooses Eulalio Gutiérrez as the new presidential candidate instead of

Manuel Palafox becomes Secretary of Agriculture.

November 10, 1914
 Villa writes to  Zapata that "the time for hostilities has come."

November 13, 1914
Final session of the Revolutionary Convention in Aguascalientes. Everyone clammed up. No compromise anywhere close.

Now the Revolutionaries are divided into Constitutionalists and Conventionalists. To keep them apart: The Constitutionalists are the Carrancistas, also called Moderates. The Conventionalists are everybody who at the revolutionary convention at Aguascalientes was against the Constitutionalists, i.e. the Villistas and the Zapatistas, henceforward still called Revolutionaries.

November 19, 1914
Alavaro Obregón formally declares war on  Pancho Villa and prepares for it while in Mexico City.

November 20, 1914
Obregón and his troops move out of Mexico City.  Villa is the appointed commander-in-chief of the Conventionalist forces.

November 23, 1914
The Americans start evacuation from the port of Veracruz and
 Carranza prepared to move in. Meanwhile,  Villa and  Zapata prepare to enter Mexico City.

November 24, 1914
 Zapata's troops enter Mexico City.

November 26, 1914
 Zapata arrives by train in Mexico City. Instead of staying at the National Palace, he takes a room at a small hotel, ironically named San Lázaro.

November 27, 1914
Press interview with
 Zapata. The poor reporters didn't get more than a few muttered sentences. Zapata declined an invitation to attend ceremonies at the palace.

 Villa stays outside Mexico City at the nearby village of Tacubya.

November 28, 1914
 Zapata back to Cuernavaca. His troops move out of Mexico City soon after.

December 4, 1914
First historic meeting between
 Zapata and  Villa at the municipal school of Xochimilco, 12 miles south of the capital.

With Emiliano Zapata came his brother Eufemio, Zapata's cousin  Amador Salazar, Zapata's sister María de Jesús, and Zapata's small son Nicolás.

With Pancho Villa came his elite troops, the Dorados, or the Golden Ones, so called because of the gold insignia they wore on their khaki uniforms and Stetsons.

They agreed to collaborate in the new campaign against  Carranza with the following strategy: Zapata and his Army of the South was to drive on Puebla while Villa and his Division of the North was to move on Veracruz via Apizaco.

An official and joint occupation of Mexico City was scheduled for December 6, 1914.

Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa are leading their troops into Mexico City
Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa
are leading their troops into Mexico City

Hugo Brehme fotografias


December 6, 1914
Interim President Eulalio Gutiérrez throws a banquet at the National Palace. Group photo shooting session.


With bandaged head:
Otilio E. Montano
Upper right corner:
Rodolfo Fierro

Zapata and Villa in Mexico City
Banquet at the Presidential Palace in Mexico City - December 1914

Someone captured the event on video.
Watch Villa and Zapata munching away:



Here's one more. Click to enlarge.

Note the kid center top row with large hat and enormous bow.
You're looking at the gunner Don Antonio Gómez Delgado at age 14,
and here is an interview with him after the make-up guys went home:


December 7, 1914
 Villa and  Zapata explain their campaign plans to interim president Eulalio Gutiérrez.

December 9, 1914
 Zapata leaves Mexico City to start his campaign. He is not going to see  Villa again.

Together, Villa and Zapata had approx 60,000 men at this point.

December 13, 1914
 Zapata hears reports of fighting between  Villa's officers and his officers in Mexico City. Apparently ex-federal agents are infiltrating the ranks of the revolutionaries, spreading distrust.

December 15, 1914
 Zapata captures Puebla City. The garrison abandons their defenses and flees to Veracruz.

December 16, 1914
 Zapata writes to  Villa that "our enemies are working very actively to divide the North and South".

Zapata abandons his campaign. Instead of advancing further toward Veracruz and keeping Puebla City under control he goes back to  Morelos.

Round about this time Villa and Gutiérrez find out that they disagree on several points. Gutiérrez starts to negotiate with Obregón, the Carrancista general at Veracruz.




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