January 18, 1914
Emiliano Zapata signs a treaty with
Julián Blanco, the rebel chief in
March 9, 1914
The allied rebel force, led by Julián Blanco,
Salgado, and Heliodoro Castillo, surround the city of
March 14, 1914
Emiliano Zapata and his men close in on
the city of Chilpancingo.
March 16, 1914
advances from Chihuahua City toward Torreón, which had
been reoccupied by the federals. Riding among Villa's outfit was
General Felipe Ángeles, now a commander of Villa's Division
of the North.
Yes, but after
Francisco I. Madero's assassination,
Victoriano Huerta let Felipe go and sent him to Europe, to France of all
places. Felipe sneaked back into Mexico and joined
Venustiano Carranza's rebel
army. In fact, Carranza made Felipe Secretary of War. Also fighting
for Carranza was Pancho Villa. Pancho and Felipe became close
friends. So close, that one day in the future Pancho
will say about Angeles that "he taught me there was such a thing as
Anyway, that's the reason why they are
riding together today.
March 17, 1914 Agustín
Breton succeeds Adolfo Jiménez Castro as governor of
March 22 - 26, 1914 Battle of Gómez Palacio.
Pancho Villa takes
a city in the state of Durango. About
1,000 men are dead and 3,000 wounded. Villa is on the roll and sends
his troops direction Torreón.
April 8, 1914
Rebel leader Jesús Salgado and his men take Iguala.
moves headquarters to Tlaltizapán. Zapata's permanent problem is the lack
of arms and ammunition.
April 9, 1914
For years, the U.S. maintained warships in the Mexican Gulf. Today,
a party of US sailors including their captain went
ashore at the port of Tampico to purchase oil for their gunboat
As they had landed in a restricted dock area, the federal
commander of the town Pablo González decides to detain the
Americans for an hour and a half. He then escorts them back to their
whaleboat. He apologizes for the incident but Rear Admiral
T. Mayo and later US President
Woodrow Wilson demand a formal
apology in the form of a hoisted U.S. flag accompanied by a 21 gun salute.
Victoriano Huerta refuses and US
president Wilson tells his Marines to pack their bundles and get ready for a
April 14, 1914
Woodrow Wilson orders the rest of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet to Tampico.
April 21 - November 14, 1914 Veracruz Incident. American
forces occupy the Mexican port of Veracruz, Mexico's principal port.
AMERICAN TROOPS IN VERACRUZ Library of Congress
April 22, 1914
The port of Veracruz is firmly in American hands. Nineteen people
killed, 70 wounded. Hundreds of Mexican casualties.
The US Embassy
in Mexico was closed at the request of the Mexican authorities.
Nelson O'Shaughnessy sticks around
in his function as chargé d'affaires for the US, which
basically means temp ambassador.
April 24, 1914 Pablo González takes Monterrey without any resistance.
Woodrow Wilson authorizes mobilization of the regular army 54,000 troops
strong and 150,000 National Guards.
As a result, a huge anti-American wave
sweeps throughout Mexico. All totalitarians, revolutionaries, and
counter revolutionaries, no matter how hostile towards each other,
make collectively known that they'd rather kiss
on the lips
than sit back and let the U.S. invade their country.
American properties are burnt
everywhere. This is not a good time for American honeymoons in
End of April 1914
Only Jojutla and Cuernavaca are left as federal strongholds in
Emiliano Zapata besieges Jojutla with a troop ratio of 3 to 1. The
1,200 federal troops are defeated and Zapata takes the town.
Unknown to the Zapatistas, the
Congress of the Union dissolves the state of Morelos and establishes
it in the Federal territory under the same name.
June 21, 1914
Pan American Union director
attends conference with several "Mexicans of prominence,
representing both sides of the present controversy" of finding a new
leader for Mexico.
In a New York Times article the next
day, Barrett comments on "finding a suitable man for provisional
President - one whom both sides cannot successfully prove to be
unsatisfactory. It may be difficult to find one whom both sides will
readily accept without any question, but eventually one will be
found against whom valid and final objections cannot be logically
maintained in the face of the demand of all America for peace.
Certainly such a man exists, and I believe that the mediators will
be able to name him within the next three weeks."
End of June 1914 Zapata's army moves into the Federal District.
July 4, 1914
Villa-Carranza peace conference at Torreon. See photo below.
Villa-Carranza peace conference, Torreon Left to right: Miguel Silva, Antonio J.
Villarreal, Isabel Robles, Rogue
Gonzalez Garza, Ernesto Meade Fierro, Yngeniero Manuel Bonilla,
Cesareo Castro, Luis Caballero
August 11, 1914
Carranzatakes the train to Teoloyucan to chat with the enemy. Teoloyucan
is located only 20 miles north of Mexico City. The interim president
had already fled into exile on Huerta's heels.
Carranza reaches agreement that his
constitutionalist forces, led by
Alavaro Obregón, would take over Mexico
City without bloodshed. The federal troops would stay put until the
last minute to prevent Zapata's troops to enter the city first. When
Carranza's men will be in position, the federal troops will withdraw
direction Puebla, which is in other words direction
Obregon insists that the Feds must leave
arms and ammunition behind.
August 13, 1914
The War Department surrenders the federal army to
Obregon at Teoloyucan. On the same day,
Cuernavaca, state capital of
August 14, 1914 Lorenzo Vázquez is the new governor of
Morelos. He will remain
as such until May 2, 1916.
August 15, 1914
Obregon enters Mexico City meeting no opposition. The Federal Army
was disbanded by the Convenios de Teoloyucán (Treaty of Teoloyucan).
August 16, 1914
Zapata, grants him a personal interview. Zapata
writes back to meet at Yautepec.
August 21, 1914 Emiliano
writes to Lucio Blanco "that this
inspire much confidence in me. I see in him much ambition, and an
inclination to fool the people."
Zapata writes to
Pancho Villa, warning him that
Carranza's ambitions were very dangerous and likely to precipitate
Last week of August 1914
Venustiano Carranzasends an envoy to meet with
and his men at
Cuernavaca. Carranza's agents indicate Carranza's refusal of the
agrarian policies insisted upon by Zapata and his men. They are
subsequently made hostages to guarantee safe transit of
emissaries through Mexico City.
August 25, 1914 Pancho Villa's
representatives meet with
Zapata. Zapata gives them a letter
to Villa, stating that the "time has come for a provisional
government to be established."
Late in August 1914 Emiliano
Zapata publishes another manifest, showing his disappointment, and
declaring that he won't yield to the false promises of the
Historian John Womack notes that
"Carranza was politically obsolete. ... In
Morelos now allegiance to
a man like Carranza was impossible. ... Villa felt the same and he
received Zapata's letter with sympathetic agreement."
September 3, 1914 Pancho Villa meets with
Alavaro Obregón, the leader of the
advance into Mexico City on August 15, at Chihuahua City. As a
result, the men came up with a 9-point plan designed to eliminate
the danger of further war.
One stipulation was that
be interim president and charged with arranging presidential
elections, which would exclude Carranza himself.
In the meantime, Carranza felt that the
presidential chair was rather comfy. Why move.
September 5, 1914
Carranzapress interview. He refuses to accept the
Plan of Ayala. He
refuses to agree that a revolutionary convention assembles to name
an interim president. But he says he is willing to discuss an
agrarian reform and he invites
Army of the South to send
a delegation to do so.
shooting breaks out between Constitutionalists and Zapatistas.
September 8, 1914 Zapata
issues a decree from Cuernavaca, stating that it is time for
Article 8 of the
Plan of Ayala, which refers to total
nationalization of goods belonging to the landlords who oppose the
Plan of Ayala. Rural property taken in this way will be handed to
pueblos or widows and orphans of the revolution who are in need of land.
Early October 1914
Alavaro Obregón and his men confer with
emissaries at Zacatecas. It is
decided to hold a full convention representing all elements of the
revolution on October 10 at Aguascalientes (Aguas Calientes) with the objective to
restore unity and to plan Mexico's future.
October 10, 1914
Revolutionary Convention of Aguascalientes.
The revolutionary convention commences at the
Aguascalientes. Zapata does not attend personally but sends an
observer, later a delegation. See October 23. This convention will
last until November 13, 1914.
October 12, 1914
Third day of the revolutionary convention. General
proposes to send once more a formal invitation to the Zapatistas.
October 14, 1914
The Conventionalists declare themselves the sovereign authority in
October 15, 1914
agrees to go to Cuernavaca himself and to persuade the
Zapatistas to attend.
October 22, 1914
Top level conference at the
headquarters. Also attending is
Felipe Ángeles. A compromise is reached: Not the complete
Plan of Ayala as such, but
merely the principles of the Plan need to be
recognized by the convention.
October 23, 1914
A delegation of Zapatistas, 26 men, leaves for Aguascalientes.
stays at Cuernavaca. Leader of the delegation is
Zapatista delegation - the Convention
of Aguascalientes Front, second from left: Paulino Martinez.
from left: Antonio Diaz Soto y Gama
October 24, 1914
delegation reaches Mexico City.
October 25, 1914
delegation boards a train for Aguascalientes where a
welcome committee expects them. BUT the train doesn't stop there. It
runs all the way to Guadalupe,
The Zapata delegation double checks that
Pancho Villa still got the interests of the southern movement at
heart. Reassured, they shuffle on back towards Aguascalientes. This time
the train stops at Aguascalientes.
October 26, 1914
delegation arrives at Aguascalientes.
October 27, 1914 Paulino Martínez speaks well at the revolutionary convention.
He mentions Land and Liberty, Land and Justice, and Land for All! He
is not interested in riches or the presidential chair. He points out
that all this is probably not going to happen with
lead. The only true direction would be to accept the
Plan of Ayala.
Next speaker is Soto y Gama, a
Zapatista, 33 years old, a lawyer. His speech is a
disaster. He tries to point out that individual honor is more important than
mythical honor to a symbol, and to underline his point he seizes the
flag, at which point the entire house starts to freak.
Eduardo Hay, a
Carrancista and a
very smart man, takes advantage of Soto's mistake and gets the people
revved up against the Zapatistas.
Quarrels continue for the next four days
between the Carrancistas, the Zapatistas, and the Villistas.
The formerly moderates are drawn to the Carrancistas after Soto's
Pancho Villa announces that he is ready
to retire if Carranza would do so as well.
November 10, 1914 Villa
that "the time for hostilities has come."
November 13, 1914
Final session of the Revolutionary Convention in Aguascalientes.
Everyone clammed up. No compromise anywhere close.
Now the Revolutionaries are divided
and Conventionalists. To keep them apart: The
Constitutionalists are the Carrancistas, also called
Moderates. The Conventionalists are
everybody who at the revolutionary convention at Aguascalientes was
against the Constitutionalists, i.e. the Villistas and the
Zapatistas, henceforward still called Revolutionaries.
November 20, 1914
Obregón and his troops move out of Mexico City.
appointed commander-in-chief of the Conventionalist forces.
November 23, 1914
The Americans start evacuation from the port of Veracruz and
Carranzaprepared to move in. Meanwhile,
enter Mexico City.
November 24, 1914 Zapata's troops enter Mexico City.
November 26, 1914 Zapata
arrives by train in Mexico City. Instead of staying at the
National Palace, he takes a room at a small hotel, ironically named San Lázaro.
November 27, 1914
Press interview with
Zapata. The poor reporters didn't get more than
a few muttered sentences. Zapata declined an invitation to attend
ceremonies at the palace.
Villa stays outside Mexico City
at the nearby village of Tacubya.
November 28, 1914 Zapata
back to Cuernavaca. His troops move out of Mexico City soon
December 4, 1914
First historic meeting between
at the municipal
school of Xochimilco, 12 miles south of the capital.
With Emiliano Zapata came his brother
Eufemio, Zapata's cousin
Amador Salazar, Zapata's sister
Jesús, and Zapata's small son Nicolás.
With Pancho Villa came his elite troops,
the Dorados, or the Golden Ones, so called because of
the gold insignia they wore on their khaki uniforms and Stetsons.
They agreed to collaborate in the new
Carranzawith the following strategy: Zapata and his Army of
the South was to drive on Puebla while Villa and his Division
of the North was to move on Veracruz via Apizaco.
An official and joint occupation of
Mexico City was scheduled for December 6, 1914.
Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa
their troops into Mexico City
Hugo Brehme fotografias
December 6, 1914
Interim President Eulalio Gutiérrez throws a banquet at the
National Palace. Group photo shooting session.
PANCHO VILLA AND EMILIANO ZAPATA
DECEMBER 6, 1914
AT THE PRESIDENTIAL PALACE IN MEXICO CITY. With bandaged head:
Otilio E. Montano
Upper right corner:
PANCHO VILLA, EULALIO GUTIÉRREZ, AND EMILIANO ZAPATA
Banquet at the Presidential Palace in Mexico City -
Someone captured the event on video.
Watch Villa and Zapata munching away:
Here's one more. Click to enlarge.
Note the kid center
top row with large hat and enormous bow.
You're looking at the gunner Don Antonio Gómez Delgado
at age 14,
and here is an interview with him after the make-up guys went home:
December 7, 1914 Villa and
explain their campaign plans to interim president
December 9, 1914 Zapata
leaves Mexico City to start his campaign. He is not going to
Together, Villa and Zapata had approx
60,000 men at this point.
December 13, 1914 Zapata
hears reports of fighting between
Villa's officers and his
officers in Mexico City. Apparently ex-federal agents are
infiltrating the ranks of the revolutionaries, spreading distrust.
December 15, 1914 Zapata
captures Puebla City. The garrison abandons their defenses
and flees to Veracruz.
December 16, 1914 Zapata
that "our enemies are working very actively
to divide the North and South".
Zapata abandons his campaign. Instead of
advancing further toward Veracruz and keeping Puebla City under
control he goes back to
Round about this time Villa and
Gutiérrez find out that they disagree on several points. Gutiérrez
starts to negotiate with
Obregón, the Carrancista general at