Emiliano Zapata assassinated - Mexican History 1919
Mexican History 1919

Mexican Revolution Timeline - Year 1919

January 1, 1919

Emiliano Zapata issues a manifesto calling upon the people to take up arms and throw Venustiano Carranza out.


During January 1919

The Federals drive
 Emiliano Zapata from his headquarters at Tlaltizapán. Zapata moves to Jojutla.

Late February 1919
Zapata has to retreat from Jojutla. He moves first toward Jonacatepec, and then toward Tochimilco.

March 17, 1919
Zapata sends a letter to Venustiano Carranza, "who I believe must be moved sometimes, if only for an instant, by the anguish of mothers . . . "you have tried to convert the revolution into a movement for your own gain . . . "It has never crossed your mind that the Revolution was for the benefit of the masses."

Still military stalemate in Morelos.

Mid-March 1919
Jesús Guajardo, a colonel in the federal army, quarrels with his commander,
 General Pablo González. Gonzalez found Guajardo drinking at a local cantina after he had been ordered into the hills around Huautla to hunt Zapatistas. Guajardo gets arrested. Zapata's spies report this back to Zapata.

March 21, 1919
Zapata writes a letter to Jesús Guajardo and encourages him to defect.

March 30, 1919
General Pablo González' lucky day. He intercepts the letter from Zapata to Guajardo, calls Guajardo a traitor and tells him that the only chance to save his neck was to set up a trap for Zapata.

Guajardo agrees and writes back to Zapata that he is ready to defect.

April 1, 1919
Zapata sends a letter back to Guajardo and asks him for a revolt on Friday, April 4. Guajardo replies right away. He agrees but asks for more time.

April 7, 1919
Zapata orders rebel attacks to divert federal attention.

April 8, 1919
Guajardo revolts in Cuautla and marches out with his men.

April 9, 1919
Colonel Jesús Guajardo, commander of the 5th Regiment, reaches Jonacatepec, occupies the town in Zapata's name.
 Zapata waits a few miles south at Pastor Station. A messenger brings Zapata the news of Guajardo's recent moves. Zapata sends a message to Guajardo, telling him he must meet him with only 30 men.

4.30 PM - Guajardo arrives, bringing with him 600 troops instead of the requested 30. Together, Guajardo and Zapata ride south two miles to Tepalcingo.

Later that night - Guajardo requests permission to return immediately to Chinameca Hacienda, ten miles east, claiming he wants to protect his stores of ammunition stacked in the plantation buildings. Zapata agrees to meet Guajardo at Chinameca early the next morning to discuss the next step.

Guajardo leaves. Soon after, Zapata rides out to spend the night in the nearby hills.

April 10, 1919
With about 150 additional men,
Zapata rides toward Chinameca.

8.30 AM - Zapata meets Colonel Jesús Guajardo at the Hacienda of San Juan Chinameca in Morelos. Within minutes a report reaches Zapata that federal troops were believed to be in the vicinity. Zapata tells Guajardo to guard the hacienda while he leaves to investigate.

1.30 PM - Zapata returns, no federals were found.

2.10 PM - Zapata takes 10 men with him to meet Guajardo inside to eat.

Inside, Zapata meets Guajardo's troops lined up. The bugler blows the call to present arms - three long notes. These sound as Zapata rides slowly across the square, swings himself from the saddle, and puts his foot on the first step leading up to the house.

The third note ends. At that moment the soldiers move their weapons from the present-arms position, raise them to eye-level, and fire.

It was an ambush and Zapata along with Agustín Cortés, Lucio Labastida, and members of his escort were shot.

Two volleys struck Zapata at point-blank range. He crashes forward on the wooden veranda and is killed instantly.

The Zapatistas who weren't shot flee southward down to the Cuautla River.

4.30 PM - The federals hurry northwards with Zapata's body thrown across a mule

7.30 PM - They reach Villa de Ayala.

Just after 9 PM - The federals reach Cuautla and meet General Pablo González. Zapata's body gets carried to the local police station, identified, photographed, and labeled.

"Emiliano Zapata. Mora." (dead)


April 12, 1919
 Zapata's burial at Cuautla cemetery.

June 1, 1919
Alvaro Obregon announces his candidacy in the forthcoming presidential elections. Venustiano Carranza's nominee is Ignacio Bonilla. General Pablo González announces himself as a challenger, which Carranza tries to ignore.

June 15 - 16, 1919
Third Battle of Juárez.

July 1919
Siege of Durango
A few weeks after
Pancho Villa's fertile attack on Ciudad Juarez, he besieged the city of Durango. The Feds attacked Villa's rear and Villa had to retreat.

Martín López was killed in the process, which was a big blow to Pancho Villa.

September 4, 1919
A meeting takes place in Cuautla to appoint Zapata's successor. Five candidates step forward: Marulio Mejía,
Genovevo de la O, Jesús Capistrán, Timoteo Sánchez, and Gildardo Magaña.

Capistrán gets 11 votes, Magaña 18; all the others one each; 32 votes in total.

A manifesto is issued to declare Gildardo Magana officially Zapata's successor and the new leader of the Liberation Army of the South, or Ejército Libertador del Sur.

In the same document the revolutionaries are encouraged to stick closely to the Plan of Ayala and to continue the fight for its advancement.

Here is the original text:

En el campamento revolucionario de Huautla, Morelos, a los cuatro días del mes de septiembre de mil novecientos diez y nueve, reunidos los generales y jefes suscriptos, del Ejército Libertador, con el objeto de tratar diversos asuntos relacionados con la Revolución y después de que en vista de la discusión respectiva se hubo llegado al conocimiento de la urgencia, cada vez mayor, de nombrar un general en jefe de dicho ejército, se procedió a elegirlo y habiéndose distribuido entre los presentes las cédulas del caso el resultado de la votación fue el que sigue: obtuvo diez y ocho votos para dicho cargo el ciudadano general Gildardo Magaña; se emitieron once votos a favor del ciudadano general Jesús Capistrán, y uno a favor de cada uno de los ciudadanos generales Genovevo de la O., Maurilio Mejía y Timoteo Sánchez. Publicado el resultado de la votación, todos los presentes se comprometieron a respetar el voto de la mayoría y a someterse por lo mismo a la jefatura del candidato triunfante, o sea el ciudadano general Gildardo Magaña. Al efecto y para el cumplimiento de este solemne compromiso quede afecto el honor de cada uno de los suscritos, firman la presente acta, de absoluta conformidad. Se hace constar que el ciudadano general Magaña invitó a los suscritos a que reconsideraran sus votos, a fin de que los emitidos a favor de él se agregasen a los que obtuvo el ciudadano general Capistrán, lo que no fue aceptado en virtud de que el escrutinio arrojó una mayoría absoluta en favor de la candidatura del general Magaña. Igualmente se hace constar que, al calce de las firmas de los concurrentes a la junta, consignarán sus votos algunos jefes que no asistieron a ella.

El general de División             El general de División
Jesús Capistrán                     Adrián Castrejón
El general de División             El general de División
Maurilio Mejía                        Fortino Ayaquica
El general de Brigada             El general de Brigada
Timoteo Sánchez                  Joaquín Caamaño
El general                             El general de Brigada
Benigno Abúndez                  Vicente Aranda
El general                             El general de Brigada
Francisco Alarcón                 P. Casado R.
El general                             El general
Jesús Chávez                       Gabino Lozano Sánchez

And here is the original document



November 15, 1919
Venustiano Carranza's troops capture Felipe Ángeles.

November 26. 1919
Carranza's men execute Felipe Ángeles.




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