Zapata retires, Mexican History 1911
Mexican History 1911

Mexican Revolution Timeline - Year 1911

First Week of February 1911

Pascual Orozco and his Chihuahuas attack Ciudad Juárez, where approx 500 federal troops are stationed. They had an agreement with  Francisco I. Madero, who was still in Texas at the time.

The idea was that Madero and his men would come back into the country as soon as Orozco and his men had Ciudad Juárez under control.

However, the Mexican government had sent reinforcements direction north and they defeated Orozco upon his attack and forced him to flee.

February 4, 1911

The federal 10th regiment led by Colonel Antonio Rábago leave Casas Grandes by train to aid their comrades in defending Ciudad Juárez.

They get as far as Bauche station where the rebels had cut off the rails, resulting in the First Battle of Bauche.

Pascual Orozco and his revolutionaries fought the feds this afternoon and night.

Oscar Merrit Wheelock, aka Captain Oscar G. Creighton, might or might not have been directly responsible for the disrupted tracks. You can read more about The Dynamite Devil on Rick Sullivan's site.

February 5, 1911
Second and last day of the First Battle of Bauche. Rabago and his team abandon the train and continue their journey inland and make it to Ciudad Juárez.

February 7, 1911
Gabriel Tepepa and Lucio Moreno start their revolution but their timing was awful. After a quick initial success, their movement got stuck in the hills because nobody was really ready to run with them. Zapata didn't chime in because he was still waiting for Torres Burgos to come back from his
Madero mission.

Battle of Smelter View -
Pascual Orozco and his men are fighting near El Paso / Juarez at the Rio Grande river banks.

Mid February 1911
Torres Burgos returns at last.
Emiliano Zapata and his men had sent him to meet with Francisco I. Madero, to check the man out and his intentions. Zapata wanted to make sure Madero was no flake and that Madero was worth risking lives for.

Torres Burgos reported a thumbs up and the revolutionaries got organized: Zapata was made colonel. Patricio Leyva was made chief revolutionary. Torres Burgos was made chief revolutionary number two, in case something happened to Patricio.

The new idea of the Zapatistas was to start the revolution in Villa de Ayala and then go south, instead of north. Don't take on the north until the south was lined up. Also: Gabriel Tepepa, a potential rival, had to be won over.

February 14, 1911
President Porfirio Díaz put some pressure on the American government, who then issued an order for
Madero's arrest. Madero crosses the border back into Mexico near Ciudad Juárez.

March 1911
Emiliano Zapata and 5,000 men shuffle to the city of Cuautla and close the road to the capital, Mexico City.

March 6, 1911
Battle of Casas Grandes, Chihuahua. Maderista rebels vs. Federal troops. The federals win.

March 8, 1911
Morelo's governor Pablo Escandón y Barrón orders an expansion of the state police force. Simultaneously, the hacienda owners strengthened their own private armies.

March 10, 1911
The revolutionaries meet at Cuautla to discuss when to start the revolution full force. Attending: Torres Burgos, Rafael Merino, Emiliano Zapata and more.
Zapata says they're not ready yet because a) there exists a lack of unity among the revolutionary chiefs and b) the revolutionaries don't have enough weapons and ammunition. Zapata is overruled. The revolution will begin tomorrow.

March 11, 1911
The revolutionaries took the police office in Villa de Ayala, gathered the people and Torres Burgos read to the crowd the
Plan of San Luis Potosí. At which occasion Otilio E. Montaño yelled "¡Abajo las Haciendas y Vivan los Pueblos!", Down with the haciendas, long live the towns.

March 12, 1911
Fighting at Agua Prieta, Sonora

March 16, 1911
In Juárez, someone set some nitroglycerin on fire and tried to blow up the housing of the Federal troops stationed there.

March 18, 1911
A cannon that was placed in the public square of El Paso, Texas, has disappeared over night.

Dolores Jiménez y Muro drafts her Plan of Tacubaya.

March 22, 1911
Morelos' governor Escandón flees to Jojutla.

March 24, 1911
Rebels enter Tlaquiltenango, 6 miles north of Jojutla. Escandón flees back to Mexico City. Tepepa takes Jojutla without bloodshed.

However, Tepepa and his men become too unpredictable. Torres Burgos calls for help from Emiliano Zapata and Rafael Merino. At an emergency meeting, Torres Burgos resigns.

March 25, 1911 (?)
Torres Burgos and his two sons were walking to Villa de Ayala. The federal police get a hold of them and shoot all three.

End of March 1911
After having taken Jojutla, the rebels plan to withdraw back into the hills because of the great discontent and lack of unity amongst them. Tepepa and many well-armed men elect Zapata Supreme Chief of the Revolutionary Movement of the South. Zapata's goal now is to link his revolution in Morelos with
Francisco I. Madero's revolution in the north.

Meanwhile, more and more people flock to Zapata's camp to join his revolutionary army. Among them were hacienda foremen, preachers, textile workers, shopkeepers, and of course the occasional bandit.

The situation in Morelos had sneaked up on President Diaz. He had been pretty sure that he had everything under control but far from it. Diaz was now desperate. He offers the position of Governor of Morelos, currently Escandón's job, to Patricio Leyva. Patricio refuses and Diaz makes Patricio's father, Francisco Leyva, State Military Commander instead. As a result, the Leyva family lost all credibility in the revolutionaries' eyes.

General Leyva, now state military commander, asks for Zapata's advice on how to handle best his new job assignment as Governor of Morelos. They meet at Jonacatepec, 5 miles east of the Morelos state line. Also attending this meeting:  Eufemio Zapata, Gabriel Tepepa, and Manuel Asúnsulo, who represents the rebels around Guerrero. No common ground could be found and the two parties go back home without any agreements.

Early April 1911
 Zapata sends Tepepa and Almazán to spice stuff up a bit along the Puebla - Guerrero border in order to prepare his first major campaign.

April 5, 1911
In the state of Puebla,  Zapata and approx 1,500 men move towards the towns Chietla and Izúcar de Matamoros. Also part of Zapata's army were some women. Even more women traveled with the outfit for camp work purposes. See  Women and the Mexican Revolution.

April 6, 1911
Federal troops and police hear of what's coming to town and pull out of Chietla and Izúcar de Matamoros.

April 7, 1911
 Zapata and his army move into Chietla and Izúcar de Matamoros. The people of the towns support the revolutionaries.

April 8, 1911
Federal reinforcements are rushed down to Izúcar de Matamoros, carrying heavy artillery.  Zapata decides to withdraw from Izúcar de Matamoros and to regroup around Chietla.

April 9, 1911
Second Battle of Bauche, Chihuahua

April 13, 1911
Battle of Agua Prieta

April 22, 1911
At Jolalpan,  Zapata meets with Ambrosio Figueroa, head of the rebels in the state of Guerrero. They decide to fight together, Zapata as the leader of joint operations in Morelos, Figueroa as the leader of joint operations in Guerrero. The leader of joint operations outside of these states would be agreed upon and appointed previously to the operations in question.

In addition, Zapata and Figueroa pick April 28 as the date for a joint attack on Jojutla.

Later in April, 1911
Zapata's spies tell him that the Jojutla attack on April 28 is a trap. Back-stabbing weasel Ambrosio Figueroa is going for revolutionary supremacy and plans to inform the federal troops so they could be well prepared, and to desert Zapata at the last minute.

Zapata asks Figueroa for a meeting to explain himself. Figueroa refuses, which makes further explaining unnecessary.

Beginning of May 1911
Without Ambrosio Figueroa, Emiliano Zapata goes for a solo campaign against Jojutla. It is a one hour deal. He surrounds the heavily guarded city with his men and sends some boys into town, who could pass by the guard without causing suspicion. The boys carry dynamite camouflaged as toys and throw them at the guard house. Confusion among the federal soldiers. Zapata and his men take the city.

May 8 - 10, 1911
First Battle of Ciudad Juárez -
Pancho Villa and Pascual Orozco capture Ciudad Juárez.

May 13, 1911
Emiliano Zapata attacks Cuautla. The Battle of Cuautla is fought from May 13 until May 19, 1911, and turned out to be one the bloodiest clashes in the entire  Mexican Revolution.

Zapata has approx 4,000 men who outnumbered the approx 400 federal troops, however, the feds had excellent defensive positions and heavy duty artillery. Around 300 rebels were killed in this first attack.

May 14, 1911
Second day of the Battle of Cuautla. This day started like yesterday ended - with heavy machine gun fire. By mid afternoon it began to show that  Zapata's army was superior in number.

May 15,1911
Third day of the Battle of Cuautla.

Francisco I. Madero's men take Torreon.

May 16, 1911
Fourth day of the Battle of Cuautla.  Zapata's men take the city street by street.

May 17, 1911
Fifth day of the Battle of Cuautla. Meanwhile, Ambrosio Figueroa thought this was a delicious opportunity to make  Zapata's life a bit more burdensome. Figueroa dispatched Asúnsulo with 800 men, to march on Cuernavaca, which is the capital of Zapata's home state Morelos.

May 18, 1911
Sixth day of the Battle of Cuautla. So far around 1,000 of  Zapata's men are dead or wounded.

May 19, 1911
Seventh day of the Battle of Cuautla. Finally, the city falls to the rebels. Barely a handful of federal soldiers survives. Almost one in every three Zapatistas had been killed or wounded.

The Battle of Cuautla increased Zapata's reputation as a determined and ruthless rebel leader immensely. At one point during the battle, General Leyva offered a truce, but  Zapata didn't want to hear anything about it. He was done talking.
After the battle, Zapata promised the peasants complete return of their lands, which had been taken by the haciendas.

The farmers returned to their former fields.

May 21, 1911
Madero and Díaz representatives sign the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez.

May 25, 1911
Díaz appoints a provisional president, Francisco León de la Barra, who was formerly the foreign secretary, and resigns. Diaz then picked his exile resort of choice and left the country for Paris, France.

 Zapata receives orders from the new Maderista authorities in Mexico City to the effect that any act of hostility against the haciendas would be considered an act of war.

Frederico Morales shoots Gabriel Tepepa.

May 26, 1911
 Zapata meets with Manuel Asúnsulo, who was head of approx 800 men. The two decide to enter Cuernavaca, capital of Morelos state, together. And so it happens. It was a peaceful occupation of the city, no riots.

Zapata meets Genovevo de la O, originally from Santa Maria, just north of Cuernavaca, also a rebel leader. Zapata and de la O become allies.

Meanwhile in Mexico City,
Madero issues a declaration. It is the first manifesto since the armistice. The statement weakened the vital paragraph 3 of article 3 in the Plan of San Luis Potosí, which promised judicial review of land exchanges and eventual return of lands to their rightful owners.

Madero also renounced his provisional presidency that he had assumed in November pending full elections and urged to obey Francisco León de la Barra.

May 29, 1911
Conference of the rebel leaders:  Zapata, de la O, Asúnsulo, Alfonso Miranda etc meet. They all agree that rivalry among them should end.

June 2, 1911
Juan Carreón is the new governor of Morelos. He succeeds Francisco Leyva and will stay in office until October 4, 1911.

June 3, 1911
Francisco I. Madero is getting ready for the trip from his home at Parras, in the state of Coahuila, to Mexico City, a four day trip.

June 7, 1911
In Mexico City just before dawn: For a little less than the duration of 15 minutes Mexico City gets hit by the strongest earthquake in living memory, killing 207 people.

Francisco I. Madero arrives in Mexico City,  Emiliano Zapata is among the ones who greets him at the train station. At the following meeting, Madero asks Zapata to disband his troops. Zapata says, not until the lands have been returned. Madero promises to visit Morelos on June 12 in order to assess the situation personally.

June 12, 1911
Madero visits Morelos. Madero offers  Emiliano Zapata money to buy land, demands disarmament, and promises Zapata the post as commander of the police in Morelos.

June 13, 1911
Zapata and his men commence disarmament.

June 15, 1911
Madero returns to Mexico City after his inspection of Cuernavaca, Igunta, Cuautla, and Chilpancingo.

June 18, 1911
Ruiz de Velasco calls a protest meeting in Mexico City. He invites hacienda owners, rich merchants etc, and gives two options: either Madero extinguishes  Zapata's power or there will be war.

June 19, 1911
 Zapata, previously voluntarily disarmed, requests 500 rifles and ammunition from governor Juan Carreón. Carreón refuses. Zapata seizes them anyway.

June 20, 1911
 Emiliano Zapata receives telegram from Francisco Madero, who orders him to travel to Mexico City to explain his behavior, which Zapata does. Madero tells Zapata to knock it off for good. Zapata returns to Cuernavaca, Morelos.

Another bad press day for Zapata. El Imparcial, Mexico City's (partial) newspaper calls him the Modern Attila. Here's the very edition:

El Imparcial - June 20, 1911

June 22, 1911
In an interview with El País newspaper,
 Zapata announces his retirement.


June 26, 1911
Now officially a retiree,
 Zapata gets married.

July 11, 1911
People are still fed up with their general situation and ask  Zapata for help. Zapata declines, he doesn't want to get involved anymore.

July 12, 1911
Popular rumor has it that there is an assassination plot scheduled for  Madero tomorrow. Fighting breaks out between Federals and Maderistas. Over 50 people get killed.

July 22, 1911
A group of Maderista generals issue a protest against the de la Barra regime. This time,  Zapata gets involved. He signs the protest as well.

August 2, 1911
Alberto García Granados becomes the appointed Minister of the Interior, replacing Emilio Vázquez.

Alberto García Granados hates  Madero's guts and demands another demobilization of  Zapata's troops. Zapata refuses.

Madero invites Zapata to meet in Tehuacán for a chat. Zapata also refuses but sends his brother Eufemio Zapata. The discussions leads to no results.

August 8, 1911
The War Department in Mexico City issues orders for troops to rush to Cuernavaca and Jonacatepec, while police under Ambrosio Figueroa mass at Jojutla. The idea was to surround Zapata in the center at Cuautla and to eliminate him.

August 9, 1911
 Zapata's religious wedding ceremony at Cuautla. A messenger bursts into the celebrations and informs the happy couple that the 32nd Infantry Regiment with over 1,000 federal troops are on their way to congratulate in person. Leader of the approaching regiment is Brigadier General Victoriano Huerta.

Zapata wires  Madero, asking if there are any official complaints against him. No answer.

August 10, 1911
State elections scheduled for August 13 are suddenly canceled.

August 11, 1911
In a letter to interim president de la Barra, Victoriano Huerta calls the Morelos governor Juan Carreón "lukewarm."

 Zapata's old buddy Genovevo de la O strikes at one of Huerta's columns.

August 12, 1911
De la Barra declares martial law to be in effect.

August 13, 1911
 Madero arrives in Cuernavaca. Ready? Here he comes:

 Madero notifies de la Barra of his intention to negotiate with  Zapata. Madero advises Zapata to embrace retirement yet again. Zapata feels strongly that a revolutionary force should remain intact until all agrarian matters are solved and settled for good.

Zapata also demands a withdrawal of the federal troops from

August 14, 1911
 Madero sends word to de la Barra and recommends that part of  Zapata's force should be allowed to be maintained and asks that movement of the federal troops should be at least delayed. De la Barra can't hear on that ear and ignores both proposals.

August 15, 1911
The War Department tells Victoriano Huerta to tell  Madero that if  Zapata refuses to disarm immediately, Huerta's troops would advance from Cuernavaca toward Yautepec, which is less than 10 miles from Cuautla, Zapata's current residence.

Huerta receives this message but doesn't tell Madero anything. Instead he requests extra artillery and ammunition from de la Barra.

August 16, 1911
9 AM -  Madero leaves Cuernavaca for Mexico City. Precisely 60 minutes after Madero's departure, Huerta issues his orders for his troops to march toward Yautepec.

De la Barra receives a delayed telegram from Madero, in which Madero expresses his thoughts that it would be a serious mistake to resort to arms. De la Barra tells Huerta to cool it. Huerta says this is just a maneuver.

Madero reaches Mexico City in the afternoon and convinces the council of Ministers to delay operations for 48 hours during which Madero would make another reconciliation attempt.

August 17, 1911
 Madero is off to meet  Zapata at Cuautla again.

August 18, 1911
 Francisco I. Madero reaches Yecapixtla, Morelos, where Eufemio Zapata welcomes him and accompanies him as bodyguard to Cuatla to meet  Zapata.  Huerta and his troops are by now half way between Cuernavaca and Yautepec.

Madero and Zapata reach the following agreement:

  • Eduardo Hay should be the new candidate for governor in  Morelos

  • Raúl Madero (Francisco Madero's brother) should be the new commander of the state police

  • The federal troops should return immediately to Cuernavaca, prior to their complete withdrawal from the state of Morelos

  • Raúl Madero should bring 250 former Maderista fighters to replace the federal garrison

  • Zapata should commence demobilization of his own men the next morning

  • Madero offers voluntarily to remain in Cuautla until the federal forces returned to Mexico City as proof of his good intentions.

August 19, 1911
 Emiliano Zapata commences disarmament in the morning.

 Huerta moves on instead of back.

De la Barra orders Ambrosio Figueroa to threaten towns in the south and west of

August 20, 1911
Massive Maderista protests in Mexico City.  Francisco I. Madero decides to confront  Victoriano Huerta himself. Francisco León de la Barra gives another 48 hour truce. Huerta agrees to cease forward movements for the time being.

August 21, 1911
 Emiliano Zapata and  Francisco I. Madero confer in Yautepec. Both travel back to Cuautla where the disarmament continues.

Governor Juan Carreón tells president de la Barra that Eufemio Zapata has the intention to launch an attack on Cuernavaca. De la Barra orders an extra 330 men with machine guns to Cuernavaca.

General  Huerta advances to Yautepec.

August 22, 1911
In the name of the federal government,  Madero signs a statement absolving  Zapata and his men from any charge of rebellion.

Meanwhile at Cuernavaca: Carreón reports to de la Barra of Zapatista aggression, which might or might not be grossly exaggerated. In any event, de la Barra announces that the rebels have violated the truce.

August 23, 1911
 Huerta starts forward from Yautepec. Cuautla is less than 10 miles away.  Zapata's men had been demobilized and many had left the area, only a few Zapatistas remain in the city. Frustrated  Madero takes the train back to Mexico City.

August 25, 1911
 Madero sends a long and bitter letter to the president and leaves the capital for Yucatán.

 Emiliano Zapata is now targeted from all directions,  Victoriano Huerta from Yautepec, General Arnoldo Casso López from Jonacatepec, and
 Ambrosio Figueroa from Jojutla.

August 27, 1911
From Cuautla,  Zapata issues a declaration addressed to the people of
 Morelos, in which he denounces the government.

 Ambrosio Figueroa arrests approx 60 local Zapatistas during the first four days of his move on Cuautla. All of them were shot. More Zapatistas were held for court martial with pretty much the same fate in view.

The Minister of the Interior, Alberto García Granados, orders the active pursuit and arrest of Zapata. Emiliano is now officially wanted dead or alive.

August 31, 1911
Federal troops surround Cuautla.  Zapata sends a telegraph to de la Barra and tells him that he, Zapata, has no intention to lead a rebellion, and that only a small group of bodyguards, assigned to him by  Madero, remain with him there in Cuautla.

De la Barra thought this was interesting and related Zapata's whereabouts and Zapata's vulnerability to  Victoriano Huerta. Huerta and Arnoldo Casso López move with their troops into Cuautla. Zapata had slipped away and was already beyond Tenextepango.

September 1, 1911
 Huerta pursues  Zapata, beating and killing his way through the countryside.

De la Barra gave Huerta all thumbs up to use his favorite methods as he wished. In effect, this brutality causes the peasants to sympathize with Zapata.

Early September 1911
 Zapata and Juan Almazán, the former Puebla medical student, establish a new and rough base 3,000 feet up in the mountains on the wild Puebla-Guerrero border.

September 20, 1911
Prominent men in the state of Oaxaca were told to revolt as fast as they could to divert federal attention.

September 26, 1911
 Huerta claims that the entire state of
 Morelos was pacified and his mission there accomplished.

Meanwhile on the same day,  Zapata and his men issue the first public declaration of their demands. They insist on

  • an election of men either freely elected by the people or selected by the "Generals and Chiefs of the present Counter-Revolution."

  • an evacuation of the plazas in the sates of Morelos, Puebla, Guerrero, and Oaxaca by the federal forces.

  • a postponement of the presidential elections that are scheduled for October 1st this year

  • a return of timber and water to the pueblos

  • an absolute liberty granted to all political prisoners

This declaration is issued at San Juan del Río in Puebla, and signed by Emiliano and Eufemio Zapata and twelve other men.

Interim president de la Barra receives this declaration, rejects all points, and immediately tells Huerta to target Zapata's current location.

September 27, 1911
 Huerta informs de la Barra of his "vigorous pursuit of the ridiculously pretentious bandits." Meanwhile,  Zapata lures Huerta away from
 Morelos. Huerta thought the rebels fled panic stricken.

October 1, 1911
The presidential elections take place and  Francisco I. Madero easily defeats de la Barra and Reyes. Inauguration is scheduled for December 1, 1911.

Sometime later in October 1911
Reyes travels to San Antonio, Texas, US. There he meets with Emilio Vásquez and the two plot together. Francisco Vásquez and Emilio Vásquez are rebel leaders in Chihuahua. Their followers are called the Vazquistas.

Anyway, the US authorities got a hold of Reyes and put him in jail. Read on at the December 4, 1911 entry to learn more about Reyes' next step.

October 4, 1911
 Ambrosio Figueroa is the new governor of  Morelos. He succeeds Juan Carreón.

October 6, 1911
 Zapata still got  Huerta on his heels. But he suddenly switches directions, rides at maximum speed, outflanks Huerta, and re-surfaces in eastern
 Morelos, completely out of reach for Huerta. There, he rallies the peasants.

October 10, 1911
 Zapata's army numbers 1,500 and the peasants were on his side.

Mid-October 1911
 Zapata turns north into Mexico state and reaches the Ozumba area. Zapata's troops attack the garrison at Milpa Alta. Panic strikes in the capital.

October 27, 1911
Cabinet crisis in Mexico City because  Zapata is so close. Three ministers are forced to resign. One of them is José Gonzáles Salas, the War Minister.

October 28, 1911
 Madero demands  Huerta's dismissal, says that "he is a very bad man."

November 6, 1911
Today is presidential inauguration date. The date had been rescheduled from December 1 to November 6 in order to get back to a normal life in Mexico ASAP.

Hence,  Madero is now officially Mexico's El Presidente. During the presidential celebrations,  Emiliano Zapata stays at Villa de Ayala.

November 8, 1911
Gabriel Robles Domínguez, the new representative of the President, arrives at Cuautla to negotiate with  Zapata. He stays for three days because there is a lot to discuss.

November 11, 1911
As far as General Casso López is concerned, the war continues. He and his men surround Villa de Ayala while Gabriel Robles Domínguez is still in there, negotiating with  Zapata. When Dominguez was done negotiating and wanted back out, Casso López refused to let him pass through his lines. Domínguez wires  Madero to halt the offensive because he had obtained excellent conditions.

November 12, 1911
Gabriel Robles Domínguez manages to sneak through the federal lines. He meets with  Madero and informs him of the results of his discussions with  Zapata.

Zapata agrees to disarm provided that

  • the Villa de Ayala faction replaces the Figueroa faction as the dominant party in  Morelos.

  • the federal troops withdraw and are replaced with local revolutionaries.

  • the agrarian aims of the revolution must be guaranteed.

Madero refuses to accept these conditions. Instead, he declares himself willing to grant pardon for Zapata and his men "for the crime of rebellion" if they surrender at once. Quite the eye-opener for Zapata.

Casso Lopez attacks Villa de Ayala and finds the village deserted. Zapata and his men are long gone.

November 25, 1911
 Zapata draws up The Plan of Ayala, declares to renew the Revolution and exclaimes Tierra y Libertad, in other words Land and Liberty.

Zapata's manifesto, the Plan of Ayala, will appear in a Mexico City newspaper in their December 15 issue.

November 28, 1911
 Zapata meets with his officers near Ayoxustla, a small town in southeastern Puebla, to read to them the The Plan of Ayala. And the men appointed General  Pascual Orozco as the new revolutionary leader. Zapata being the second in command.

Early December 1911
 Madero sends a group of negotiators  Zapata's direction. Zapata kicked them out with a message for El Presidente to get the hell to Havana, otherwise he, Zapata, will have him hanged from one of the highest tress in the park.

December 1911
 Emiliano Zapata's staff is composed of 7 generals, 27 colonels, and numerous captains. The generals are Eufemio Zapata, Francisco Mendoza, Jesús Morales, Jesús Navarro, Otilio E. Montaño, José Trinidad Ruiz, and Próculo Capistrán.

December 4, 1911
Reyes jumps bail in the US and crosses the border into Mexico. He commands about 600 men. But his revolutionary attempt will run out of steam and his supporters will flee. Reyes will get arrested once more, this time by the Mexican authorities, and put in jail in Mexico City.

December 20, 1911
 Zapata issues general orders to his Liberation Army of the South, or Ejército Libertador del Sur. He decrees that officers should "bring to the consciousness of our troops that the better we behave, the more adherents and help we will have among the people and the faster will be our triumph."

December 31, 1911
 Zapata issues another manifesto to the "beloved pueblos".



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History Movies

What's fact, what's fiction?

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Historical Castles and Palaces




















































































































































































































































French Revolution - Its Causes, Its Victims, Its Effects


People in History

Historic People - Main

People in History A - C

People in History D - F

People in History G - I

People in History J - M

People in History N - Q

People in History R - Z

Royal Families

Tribes & Peoples

Explorers, Scientists & Inventors

Musicians, Painters & Artists

Poets, Writers & Philosophers

First Ladies

Native Americans & The Wild West





Wars, Battles & Revolutions

Wars & Revolutions A

Wars & Revolutions B - E

Wars & Revolutions F - G

Wars & Revolutions H - J

Wars & Revolutions K - O

Wars & Revolutions P - R

Wars & Revolutions S - Z

Wars & Revolutions Chronological

Battles A - C

Battles D - L

Battles M - P

Battles Q - Z

Battles Ancient Times - 1499

Battles 1500 - 1799

Battles 1800 - Today



History Dictionary A - F

History Dictionary G - Z

Source Text - By Title

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Historic Documents A - Z

Historic Documents Chronological

History News




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