US AMBASSADOR TO MEXICO MIXED UP IN MADERO KILLING
Mexican History 1913
Timeline - Year 1913
February 22, 1913
Francisco Madero and
José Pino Suárez are shot while transferred
from one prison to another. The official
version is that they had been shot during an attempted rescue by Maderistas.
Unofficially it was on Huerta's orders.
the elected governor of
February 24, 1913
Francisco Madero and
José Pino Suárez buried.
February 27, 1913
Emiliano Zapata sends a note to
Genovevo de la O, advising him to "attack the
enemy as often as he presents himself."
sends a note to
Victoriano Huerta, informing him that the rebellion
Venustiano Carranza emerges as a new anti-Huerta
rebel leader in the north.
Huerta decides to reactivate
Robles and to pull him back out of retirement.
Huerta declares martial law in
the southern states.
March 4, 1913
Woodrow Wilson becomes 28th president of the United
March 13, 1913
Pancho Villa and a small group of like-minded folks cross the border
from Texas to Mexico.
Nogales, Sonora. Approx 400 federal troops, led by
General Emilio Kosterlitzky looked 2,000 rebels, led by General
deep in the eye and decided to give up. The Federals lost four men,
five wounded, five taken prisoner. The rebels lost six men and nine
wounded. Instead of surrendering to the rebels, the Federals
crossed the border and handed their arms over to Captain
C. Smith Sr of the US 5th cavalry.
During the following days,
Alvaro Obregón, and Pancho Villa prepare their campaigns.
returns to Chihuahua to continue the fight there.
March 14, 1913
Victoriano Huerta reveals to an American ambassador that up to 20,000
Morelos are scheduled for relocation into labor camp at Quintana Roo.
March 26, 1913
Venustiano Carranza comes up with his
Plan of Guadalupe and initiates
his Constitutionalist Revolution. And here is the map:
Click map to enlarge
Sometime between March and April 1913
Victoriano Huerta. And here you can see them hugging.
OROZCO HUGS HIS NEW
Mexican History 1913
April 14, 1913
Robles returns to Cuernavaca and sends the elected deputies
Morelos to the Mexico City jail.
April 17, 1913
Robles assumes full power in the
state capital Cuernavaca.
Former governor of Morelos, Patricio Leyva had resigned
previously. See February 22, 1913.
Battle of Jonacatepec.
Emiliano Zapata attacks the city of Jonacatepec.
April 18, 1913
Zapata takes the city of Jonacatepec after a 36 hour long battle.
Zapata captures plenty of arms, ammunition, and General
Aguilar, who then defects to Zapata.
Zapata sets up headquarters at
April 21, 1913
Victoriano Huerta tells unhappy planters that he will be on top of the rebel
problem within a month.
April 23, 1913
Huerta's speech appears in the
Siege of Cuautla. Zapata laid
siege to the city.
Round about this time Zapata gets some
much appreciated help from
Manuel Palafox. Twenty-six year
old Manuel had studied engineering in Pueblo City and works now as
an accountant. The youngster turns out to be a smart man, an able
leader and bright consultant.
May 1, 1913
Zapata's men blow up a military train in a station on the
Mexico-Morelos border. Almost 100 federal soldiers get killed.
Zapata's troops are creeping slowly but
surely towards the state capital Cuernavaca. Although
fight trouble in the north, he increases
Robles' contingent to 5,000
May 9, 1913
Huerta's sweeping through. Within seven days all inhabitants of
are ordered to "re-concentrate in the nearest district
seat". Within one month approx 1,000 men will get deported and
another 1,000 during June.
May 30, 1913
Zapata issues an amendment to the
Plan of Ayala.
In his latest manifesto, Zapata states
is an usurper and
unworthy to be the president of the Mexican republic. Furthermore,
is of no
significance any longer. For the first time Zapata officially
assumes leadership. So far, Orozco had been number one in command.
June 13, 1913
General Aureliano Blanquet becomes General
successor as Minister of War.
Zapata's forces are stronger than ever.
Pancho Villa leads approx 8,000 men.
Robles are burning more
and more villages.
Once again Zapata's mother-in-law and four of her
daughters are taken hostages.
July 3, 1913
The federals get a hold of
Figueroa and execute him.
July 17, 1913
Wilson recalls US ambassador to Mexico
August 19, 1913
The rebels had managed to convince
Robles that they're sitting ducks
at Huautla. Today, Robles and his troops attack Huautla and find the
village completely deserted. Nevertheless, Robles reports back to
Huerta that "Zapata's hordes have today been completely destroyed."
Round about this time Zapata sets up
headquarters in the north of Guerrero.
joins the Revolution on
Pancho Villa's side.
September 13, 1913
Robles, the governor and military commander at Cuernavaca,
state capital of
Morelos, gets replaced by
Brigadier General Adolfo Jiménez Castro.
His officially first day on the new job is
October 2, 1913.
September 25, 1913
Battle of Avilés.
Pancho Villa and his rebels take the town
after a two-hour battle. The feds suffer the loss of more than half
of their troops. Federal general Alvírez gets himself killed
September 29, 1913 - October 1, 1913
Battle of Torreón - Three
days of bitter fighting between
Pancho Villa with 8,000 men, against 3,000 well trained and
well equipped federal soldiers. Villa wins.
October 2, 1913
Jiménez Castro is officially Morelos' new governor. He will stay
in office until March 17, 1914.
October 10, 1913
During a sitting, the Chamber of Deputies in Mexico City finds
itself surrounded by
Huerta's troops. The 110 congressmen were taken
to prison and president Huerta declares the Congress dissolved.
Huerta assumes total dictatorial powers.
October 19, 1913
Zapata and his men consult and find that two things are desired.
One, a unification with the main rebel chiefs in the north. Two,
recognition of this allied revolutionary movement by the U.S.
October 20, 1913
Zapata issues his manifesto Victory Approaches. It is
directed at the entire nation.
October 24, 1913
Zapata sends a letter to
Francisco Vázquez Gómez in
Washington, requesting to represent the southern revolution at the
White House and to seek a loan to buy ammunition.
October 26, 1913
Presidential elections and Congress elections are scheduled for today.
In an attempt to polish his international image,
previously promised not to stand in these elections. The elections
commence and as expected, are a complete sham. The Congress is
filled with army officers and Huerta is declared president even
though he didn't even stand as a candidate.
This development triggered US president
Wilson to ask European nations which had recognized Huerta
"to impress upon him the wisdom of retirement." Wilson further
states that "if General Huerta does not retire by force of
circumstances it will become the duty of the U.S. to use less
peaceful means to put him out."
November 5, 1913
Pancho Villa attempts to take Chihuahua City but the federal troops prove
November 12, 1913
Battle of Juarez - Three days
of inconclusive fighting.
Pancho Villa withdraws, captures a coal
train, dumps the coal out, puts 2,000 of his men in there instead.
With this train, Pancho manages to enter Ciudad Juarez, which
by now was fortified by 4,000 federal troops.
November 15, 1913
Juarez is in
Pancho Villa's hands. Meanwhile, 11 trainloads of federal
troops were sent on its way up from Chihuahua City to give Pancho
Villa something to think about.
November 16, 1913
Villa orders review of his troops and moves to Tierra Blanca, 35
miles south of Juarez, expecting the Feds.
November 22 - 25, 1913
of Tierra Blanca
Nov 22 - Federal troops attack
Villa's right flank. Villa held
Nov 23 - Federal troops attack Villa's left flank. Villa held
Nov 25 - Federal troops launched final attack. Villa charges into
enemy's center. Enemy flees. Villa wins and 1,000 federal troops are
November 28, 1913
Villa takes Chihuahua City