Mexican History 1913

Mexican Revolution Timeline - Year 1913

February 9 - February 18, 1913

The Ten Tragic Days overthrow Francisco Madero, bring
Victoriano Huerta to power, and leave Mexico City in ruins.

February 19, 1913

Victoriano Huerta is the new president of Mexico.

February 22, 1913

Francisco Madero and José Pino Suárez are shot while transferred from one prison to another. The official version is that they had been shot during an attempted rescue by Maderistas. Unofficially it was on Huerta's orders.

Patricio Leyva, the elected governor of Morelos, resigns.

February 24, 1913
Francisco Madero and José Pino Suárez buried.

February 27, 1913
Emiliano Zapata sends a note to Genovevo de la O, advising him to "attack the enemy as often as he presents himself."

March 1913
Emiliano Zapata sends a note to
Victoriano Huerta, informing him that the rebellion continues. Venustiano Carranza emerges as a new anti-Huerta rebel leader in the north.

Huerta decides to reactivate Juvencio Robles and to pull him back out of retirement. Huerta declares martial law in the southern states.

March 4, 1913
President Woodrow Wilson becomes 28th president of the United States.

March 13, 1913
Pancho Villa and a small group of like-minded folks cross the border from Texas to Mexico.

Battle of Nogales, Sonora. Approx 400 federal troops, led by General Emilio Kosterlitzky looked 2,000 rebels, led by General Alvaro Obregon, deep in the eye and decided to give up. The Federals lost four men, five wounded, five taken prisoner. The rebels lost six men and nine wounded. Instead of surrendering to the rebels, the Federals crossed the border and handed their arms over to Captain Cornelius C. Smith Sr of the US 5th cavalry.

During the following days, Venustiano Carranza, Alvaro Obregón, and Pancho Villa prepare their campaigns. Pascual Orozco returns to Chihuahua to continue the fight there.

March 14, 1913

Victoriano Huerta reveals to an American ambassador that up to 20,000 people from Morelos are scheduled for relocation into labor camp at Quintana Roo.

March 26, 1913
Venustiano Carranza comes up with his Plan of Guadalupe and initiates his Constitutionalist Revolution. And here is the map:

Mexico - The Constitutionalist Revolution, 1910-1920
Click map to enlarge


Sometime between March and April 1913
Pascual Orozco defects to
Victoriano Huerta. And here you can see them hugging.

Pascual Orozco and Victoriano Huerta hugging.
Mexican History 1913

April 14, 1913
Juvencio Robles returns to Cuernavaca and sends the elected deputies of  Morelos to the Mexico City jail.

April 17, 1913

Juvencio Robles assumes full power in the  Morelos state capital Cuernavaca. Former governor of Morelos, Patricio Leyva had resigned previously. See February 22, 1913.

Battle of Jonacatepec. Emiliano Zapata attacks the city of Jonacatepec.

April 18, 1913
Zapata takes the city of Jonacatepec after a 36 hour long battle. Zapata captures plenty of arms, ammunition, and General Higinio Aguilar, who then defects to Zapata.

Zapata sets up headquarters at Tepalcingo.

April 21, 1913
Victoriano Huerta tells unhappy planters that he will be on top of the rebel problem within a month.

April 23, 1913
Huerta's speech appears in the Mexican Herald.

Siege of Cuautla. Zapata laid siege to the city.

Round about this time Zapata gets some much appreciated help from  Manuel Palafox. Twenty-six year old Manuel had studied engineering in Pueblo City and works now as an accountant. The youngster turns out to be a smart man, an able leader and bright consultant.

May 1, 1913
Zapata's men blow up a military train in a station on the Mexico-Morelos border. Almost 100 federal soldiers get killed.

Zapata's troops are creeping slowly but surely towards the state capital Cuernavaca. Although Huerta has to fight trouble in the north, he increases  Juvencio Robles' contingent to 5,000 troops.

May 9, 1913
Huerta's sweeping through. Within seven days all inhabitants of  Morelos are ordered to "re-concentrate in the nearest district seat". Within one month approx 1,000 men will get deported and another 1,000 during June.

May 30, 1913
Zapata issues an amendment to the
Plan of Ayala. In his latest manifesto, Zapata states that  Huerta is an usurper and unworthy to be the president of the Mexican republic. Furthermore, Pascual Orozco is of no significance any longer. For the first time Zapata officially assumes leadership. So far, Orozco had been number one in command.

June 13, 1913
General Aureliano Blanquet becomes General Manuel Mondragon's successor as Minister of War.

July 1913
Zapata's forces are stronger than ever. Pancho Villa leads approx 8,000 men.
 Huerta and  Juvencio Robles are burning more and more villages.

Once again Zapata's mother-in-law and four of her daughters are taken hostages.

July 3, 1913
The federals get a hold of Ambrosio Figueroa and execute him.

July 17, 1913
US President Woodrow Wilson recalls US ambassador to Mexico  Henry Lane Wilson.

August 19, 1913
The rebels had managed to convince
 Juvencio Robles that they're sitting ducks at Huautla. Today, Robles and his troops attack Huautla and find the village completely deserted. Nevertheless, Robles reports back to Huerta that "Zapata's hordes have today been completely destroyed."

Round about this time Zapata sets up headquarters in the north of Guerrero.

September 1913
Rodolfo Fierro joins the Revolution on Pancho Villa's side.

September 13, 1913
 Juvencio Robles, the governor and military commander at Cuernavaca, state capital of  Morelos, gets replaced by Brigadier General Adolfo Jiménez Castro. His officially first day on the new job is October 2, 1913.

September 25, 1913
Battle of Avilés. Pancho Villa and his rebels take the town after a two-hour battle. The feds suffer the loss of more than half of their troops. Federal general Alvírez gets himself killed as well.

September 29, 1913 - October 1, 1913
Battle of Torreón - Three days of bitter fighting between Pancho Villa with 8,000 men, against 3,000 well trained and well equipped federal soldiers. Villa wins.

October 2, 1913
Adolfo Jiménez Castro is officially Morelos' new governor. He will stay in office until March 17, 1914.

October 10, 1913
During a sitting, the Chamber of Deputies in Mexico City finds itself surrounded by
 Huerta's troops. The 110 congressmen were taken to prison and president Huerta declares the Congress dissolved.

Huerta assumes total dictatorial powers.

October 19, 1913
Zapata and his men consult and find that two things are desired. One, a unification with the main rebel chiefs in the north. Two, recognition of this allied revolutionary movement by the U.S.

October 20, 1913
Zapata issues his manifesto Victory Approaches. It is directed at the entire nation.

October 24, 1913
Zapata sends a letter to Francisco Vázquez Gómez in Washington, requesting to represent the southern revolution at the White House and to seek a loan to buy ammunition.

October 26, 1913
Presidential elections and Congress elections are scheduled for today. In an attempt to polish his international image,
 Huerta had previously promised not to stand in these elections. The elections commence and as expected, are a complete sham. The Congress is filled with army officers and Huerta is declared president even though he didn't even stand as a candidate.

This development triggered US president Woodrow Wilson to ask European nations which had recognized Huerta "to impress upon him the wisdom of retirement." Wilson further states that "if General Huerta does not retire by force of circumstances it will become the duty of the U.S. to use less peaceful means to put him out."

November 5, 1913
Pancho Villa attempts to take Chihuahua City but the federal troops prove too strong.

November 12, 1913
Battle of Juarez - Three days of inconclusive fighting. Pancho Villa withdraws, captures a coal train, dumps the coal out, puts 2,000 of his men in there instead. With this train, Pancho manages to enter  Ciudad Juarez, which by now was fortified by 4,000 federal troops.

November 15, 1913
Juarez is in Pancho Villa's hands. Meanwhile, 11 trainloads of federal troops were sent on its way up from Chihuahua City to give Pancho Villa something to think about.

November 16, 1913
Villa orders review of his troops and moves to Tierra Blanca, 35 miles south of Juarez, expecting the Feds.

November 22 - 25, 1913
Battle of Tierra Blanca
Nov 22 - Federal troops attack Villa's right flank. Villa held ground.
Nov 23 - Federal troops attack Villa's left flank. Villa held ground.
Nov 25 - Federal troops launched final attack. Villa charges into enemy's center. Enemy flees. Villa wins and 1,000 federal troops are dead.

November 28, 1913
Villa takes Chihuahua City




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