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History Dictionary O - R


 




O

Oglala
A branch of the Sioux tribe.
 Crazy Horse was an Oglala.




 

Old Style / New Style Dates
The Old Style Calendar is the
 Julian calendar. The New Style Calendar is the  Gregorian calendar, the one we use today.

The switch from Old to New Style Calendar was somewhat choppy, each country adopted it whenever they were good and ready. France, for instance, adopted it in 1582 but it took Greece until 1923.

If you have no clue what this is about, here is an example: If you look up the October Revolution, you might find the dates given as October 24 - 25, 1917 (November 6 - 7, 1917, New Style.) Why two dates? Because it took the Soviet Union until 1918 to adopt the New Style Calendar. Which is why the October Revolution actually took place in November.

Confused? Probably not as much as the British were when, in order to switch from Old to New Style Calendar, their September 2, 1752, was followed by September 14, 1752.




 

Okhrana
The secret police of Russia's tsar. Father Gapon was on their payroll.

 MORE ABOUT FATHER GAPON




 

Oprichniki
The goons that were on
 Ivan the Terrible's payroll.




P

Panticapaeum
Today's Kerch in the Ukraine.
 Mithradates IV Eupator died here.  More info on Panticapaeum provided by the Encyclopedia Ukraine.




 

Papal Legate
If you are a papal legate, then you're a direct representative of the Pope to a certain country and authorized to settle any matters regarding the Church. All in all, you are very powerful.
 William Longchamp was made papal legate for England in 1190.




 

Parlement
Supreme courts in France under the ancien regime.

See also GLOSSARY OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION: PARLEMENT




 

Pax Romana
Roman peace and tranquility from 27 BC - AD 180.

 MORE ABOUT PAX ROMANA




 

Perestroika
Reorganization a la
 Gorbachev.

 MORE ABOUT PERESTROIKA




 

Pilgrims
If you are referring to pilgrims, they can either be a) people who travel in foreign lands or b) people who travel to holy places for religious reasons. If you capitalize the Pilgrims then you are talking about c) the tour group of English colonists who came to Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1620, and who started the first stable colony in New England.

Here's
 more about their voyage and their ship, the Mayflower.

And here is the American Timeline.




 

Plumbers
The Plumbers were charged with the task of fixing leaks to the press. Welcome to the Nixon administration.

See more under Watergate - Who Were the Plumbers?




 

Pluvi˘se
meaning rain. Fifth month in the French Republican Calendar, from January 20 to February 18.

See also GLOSSARY OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION: FRENCH REPUBLICAN CALENDAR




 

Poet Laureate  
 Alfred Tennyson was one.

 MORE ABOUT THE POETS LAUREATE




 

Politburo
Heart of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.


 MORE ABOUT THE POLITBURO




 

Pontifex Maximus
Highest priest




 

Pope
Head of the Roman Catholic Church. The Greek word papas originally means father. Later the term was used in the sense of bishop and patriarch.

 LIST OF ALL POPES




 

Praetor

PronouncE PRAETOR

Roman high official; judicial officer.




 

Praetorian Guard
Bodyguards of the Roman Emperors.
 Constantine the Great suspended the famous guards.




 

Prairial
meaning meadow. Ninth month in the French Republican Calendar, from May 20 to June 18.

See also GLOSSARY OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION: FRENCH REPUBLICAN CALENDAR




 

Punic
Language of ancient Carthage. Also all things related to the Carthaginians.

 MORE ABOUT WHAT'S PUNIC




Q

Quaestor 

PronouncE QUAESTOR

Lowest ranking Roman magistrate




R

Red Scare
Extreme anticommunism. The fear of Communists, which on occasion grew into phobia.

 MORE ABOUT THE RED SCARE




 

Reign of Terror
September 5, 1793, to July 27, 1794, in France.

 MORE ABOUT THE REIGN OF TERROR




 

Revolution of 9 Thermidor, year II
On July 27, 1794, members of the National Convention (La Plaine) overthrew the Committee of Public Safety.

See also GLOSSARY OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION: REVOLUTION OF 9 THERMIDOR




 

Rhine, Confederation of the
Napoleon's buffer states and allies against Prussia and Austria.

 MORE ABOUT THE CONFEDERATION OF THE RHINE




 

Risorgimento
A movement in the 19th century to unify Italy.
 Giuseppe Mazzini and  Giuseppe Garibaldi were prominent figures in this movement.

MORE ABOUT ITALY'S WARS OF INDEPENDENCE




 

Royal African Company
Established in 1672.

MORE ABOUT SLAVERY AND ABOLITION





 

More History


 




 

Communism
 

Huguenots
 

Mayflower
 

Mummies

 


Famous Speeches in History
Browse the speech archive:

Speeches by Topic A-Z

Speeches by Speaker A-Z

Speeches in Chronological Order

Speeches Given by Women

Speeches Given by African-Americans

Speeches Given by U.S. Presidents


 

Attila the Hun
More about the greatest of all Barbarian rulers:

Attila short biography
Map of Attila's empire
Battle of the Catalaunian Plains
Who were the Huns?
 


Greco-Persian Wars
Also called the Persian Wars, the Greco-Persian Wars were fought for almost half a century from 492 to 449 BC. Greece won against enormous odds. Here is more:

Battle of Marathon
Battle of Thermopylae
Battle of Salamis
Battle of Plataea


 


HISTORY

Mexican Revolution

The Mexican Revolution


Check out the
Timelines of the Mexican Revolution

Mexico's transition from dictatorship to constitutional republic translated into ten messy years of skirmishing in Mexican history.

More from the Mexican Revolution:

Pancho Villa

Emiliano Zapata

Francisco I. Madero

Causes of the Mexican Revolution

Women in the Mexican Revolution

Summary of the Mexican Revolution

 

About Mata Hari

 

The Divine Almanac
Who all roamed the heavens in olden times? The Who's Who of ancient gods.

Check out the Divine Almanac

 


The Ancient Greeks in a Nutshell

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

French Revolution - Its Causes, Its Victims, Its Effects

     
 


People in History

Historic People - Main

People in History A - C

People in History D - F

People in History G - I

People in History J - M

People in History N - Q

People in History R - Z

Royal Families

Tribes & Peoples

Explorers, Scientists & Inventors

Musicians, Painters & Artists

Poets, Writers & Philosophers

First Ladies

Native Americans & The Wild West

Troublemakers

Historians

Archaeologists

 


Wars, Battles & Revolutions

Wars & Revolutions A

Wars & Revolutions B - E

Wars & Revolutions F - G

Wars & Revolutions H - J

Wars & Revolutions K - O

Wars & Revolutions P - R

Wars & Revolutions S - Z

Wars & Revolutions Chronological

Battles A - C

Battles D - G

Battles H - L


Battles M - P

Battles Q - Z

Battles Ancient Times - 1499

Battles 1500 - 1699

Battles 1700 - 1799

Battles 1800 - 1899

Battles 1900 - Today

 


Miscellaneous

History Dictionary A - F

History Dictionary G - Z

Source Text - By Title

Source Text - By Author

Historic Documents A - Z

Historic Documents Chronological

Music in History

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