War of 1812 Timeline: 1813

Go here for the War of 1812 in a Nutshell

If these timelines of the War of 1812 are too detailed, check the  War of 1812 - Key Events, which are a summary of the years 1812-1815.

For overlapping events related to the  Napoleonic Wars see the timelines of the Napoleonic Wars for the years 1812-1815:

Napoleonic Wars: Year 1812

Napoleonic Wars: Year 1813

Napoleonic Wars: Year 1814

Napoleonic Wars: Year 1815


January 18, 1813
Skirmish preceding the Battle of Frenchtown. Americans, led by Col. William Lewis, defeat a British unit.


January 22, 1813
Battle of Frenchtown, also called Battle of the River Raisin, Michigan Territory. British victory. British and Indians, led by Col. Henry Procter, defeat Americans, led by James Winchester.


January 23, 1813
Frenchtown Massacre. Indians kill approx. 60 American prisoners that were taken yesterday at the Battle of Frenchtown.


February 22, 1813
Battle of Ogdensburg. A British force, led by Lt. Col. George MacDonnell, captures Ogdensburg, New York.


February 24, 1813
USS Hornet vs. HMS Peacock. Off the coast of British Guiana, the Hornet, under Capt. James Lawrence, sinks the Peacock, under Capt. William Peake, who is killed in this battle.


March 3, 1813
The Twelfth Congress passes An Act vesting in the President of the United State the power of retaliation, according to which:

... any violations of the laws and usages of war... perpetrated by those acting under authority of the British government, on any of the citizens of the United States... the President of the United State is hereby authorized to cause full and ample retaliation to be made...

Furthermore he is permitted to do so in case of:

... any outrage or act of cruelty or barbary ... practised by any Indian or Indians, in alliance with the British government


March 11, 1813
Secretary of State
James Monroe writes to Count Andrei Daschkoff (Daschkov), conveying President Madison's willing acceptance of Czar Alexander's offer to mediate between Britain and the States.


April 12, 1813
U.S. forces, led by James Wilkinson, from New Orleans and Fort Stoddert show up at the gates of Mobile, Mississippi Territory, and are ready to attack the Spanish. This is part of the
West Florida Controversy, in which the U.S. claims that this area was part of the  Louisiana Purchase of 1803. Spain will evacuate Mobile on April 15, 1813, and will eventually cede all claims to West and East Florida in 1819 (see Transcontinental Treaty).


April 13, 1813
Spanish captain Don Cayetano Perez surrenders Mobile to the U.S.


April 15, 1813
The Spanish evacuate Mobile. U.S. control of Mobile won't be challenged until September 14, 1814.


April 27, 1813
Battle of York, Ontario, Canada. Present day Toronto. U.S. troops led by Henry Dearborn can claim a U.S. victory. But U.S. Brigadier General Zebulon Montgomery Pike and many others are killed in the attack when a British magazine explodes. After the British retreat, the Americans stay until May 1st. They loot the town and burn the Parliament and other public buildings. British payback will follow in
August 1814.


May 1, 1813
First Siege of Fort Meigs begins. Henry Procter has arrived from Fort Amherstburg with 1,000 troops. He joins forces with Tecumseh and 1,200 Indians. Together, they begin to attack Fort Meigs, which is defended by William Henry Harrison and 1,100 Americans.

However, the fort is very well built and British artillery that Procter fired from the north bank of the Maumee River, is ineffective.

An American relief force will arrive on May 5, 1813.

This siege will end on May 9, 1813.

The Second Siege of Fort Meigs will take place on July 21, 1813.


May 2 - 3, 1813
British night attack and sack of Havre de Grace, Maryland.


May 5, 1813
Green Clay and 1,200 troops from Kentucky arrive at Fort Meigs. This is the Battle of Fort Meigs. Clay put Colonel William Dudley in command of 800 men who were assigned to disable British guns and then retire to the fort. The former they did, but instead of withdrawing to the fort, they charged after the fleeing enemy, which turned out to be a trap. Tecumseh and his men engaged and 80 % of Dudley's force were captured or killed.

Indians started killing their prisoners. Around 40 men had been killed before Tecumseh and Matthew Elliott, the British Indian agent, were able to stop the carnage.

In the meantime, Clay and the remainder of his unit had made it into Fort Meigs.


May 9, 1813
The First Siege of Fort Meigs ends. The Americans have successfully defended the fort, thanks to its excellent construction. Procter and his men withdraw to Canada.

Casualties of the First siege of Fort Meigs: 320 Americans killed or wounded, 550 Americans captured. 100 British killed. Indian casualties not known.

Harrison leaves Green Clay in command of Fort Meigs and marches to Cleveland to meet with Oliver Hazard Perry.

The Second Siege of Fort Meigs will take place on July 20, 1813.

Also on May 9, 1813: Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin, and Delaware Senator James A. Bayard board the Neptune and leave for St. Petersburg. Together with John Quincy Adams, who is already on location as the U.S. Minister to Russia, they plan to function as a special committee that, with the help of the Russian Czar as mediator, will negotiate peace with Great Britain. They will land at Revel (today's Tallinn, Estonia), and continue overland to reach St. Petersburg on
July 21, 1813.


May 14, 1813
John Adams in a letter to President James Madison:

"Either Canada must conquer the United States or the United States must conquer Canada. [...] Naval power, on the lakes and on the ocean is all we want. Every thing else we have already."


May 27, 1813
Battle of Fort George. U.S. victory. Americans, led by Henry Dearborn, capture Fort George from the British defenders, under the command of Brig. Gen. John Vincent. The British evacuate the fort and move to Queenston.


May 29, 1813
Battle of Sacket's (Sackets) Harbor. British victory. A British combined force of troops, led by George Prevost and Edward Baynes, and ships, under the command of Sir James Lucas Yeo, attacks, but is repulsed by American land forces, led by Jacob J. Brown, and American naval forces, led by Isaac Chauncey. However, the British feel that enough damage has been done, and withdraw.


May 31, 1813
To get the Senate's confirmation, Madison officially nominates John Quincy Adams, Albert Gallatin, and James A. Bayard as special peace negotiators. Gallatin and Bayard are already on their way to meet Adams at St. Petersburg. They have left on May 9, 1813, after Madison had given them the go-ahead in April 1813 since Senate was not in session until May 1813.


June 1, 1813
USS Chesapeake vs. HMS Shannon. British victory.

The USS Chesapeake, under Capt. James Lawrence, fights the HMS Shannon, under Capt. Philip Broke. The Shannon wins after a 15 minute battle near Boston harbor. Captain Lawrence is mortally wounded and utters his famous last words "Don't give up the ship."

British killed: 33, wounded: 43. Americans killed:62, wounded: 85. The British took the ship and what remained of the Chesapeake's crew (325 men) as prisoners.

Action between HMS Shannon and USS Chesapeake - 1 June 1813
Action between HMS Shannon and USS Chesapeake - 1 June 1813
Oil on canvas by T. Jordan
National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London


June 6, 1813
Battle of Stoney Creek, Niagara Peninsula. British victory. The British, led by Lt. Col. John Harvey, create confusion in the American camp by means of a night attack. Both commanders of the American forces, Brig. Gen. William Winder and Brig. Gen. John Chandler, are captured by the British.


June 22, 1813
Battle of Craney Island, Virginia. American victory.


June 24, 1813
Battle of Beaver Dams. British victory. Also called U.S. surrender at Beaver Dams. The Americans, led by Charles G. Boerstler, surrender to the British and Indians, led by James Fitzgibbon, who were about to retreat when Fitzgibbon managed to trick them by making them believe they were greatly outnumbered.


June 25, 1813
Battle of Hampton, Virginia. British victory.


June 26, 1813
Sack of Hampton, Virginia. British disgrace.


July 6, 1813
U.S President Madison removes Major General Henry Dearborn from command.


July 11, 1813
British raid on Black Rock, New York, led by Lt. Col. Cecil Bisshopp. American resistance, led by Peter B. Porter. The British raid was successful, however, Bisshopp was mortally wounded.


July 19, 1813
The U.S. Senate confirms Adams (30 yeas, 4 nays) and Bayard (27 yeas, 6 nays) as special envoys to negotiate peace with Great Britain with mediation by the Russian Czar, but rejects Gallatin by a vote of 18 nays and 17 yeas.

Too bad, Bayard and Gallatin have already left the States direction St. Petersburg on May 9, 1813.


July 21, 1813
Second Siege of Fort Meigs. After the unsuccessful First Siege of Fort Meigs May 1-9, 1813, Procter tries again his luck with Fort Meigs. This time Tecumseh came up with a plan to lure the Americans out of the strong fort.

Today, they surround the fort, and stage a mock battle with an imaginary U.S. relief force just in hearing distance. But despite sending fake pleas to the fort to come to the aid of the American relief force, Clay stays put. He isn't expecting a relief force and he ain't coming out.

The 500 British and their Indian allies withdraw and march to Fort Stephenson, which they will attack on August 1, 1813.

Also on July 21, 1813: Gallatin and Bayard arrive at St. Petersburg. Hey had left the States on
May 9, 1813.


July 27, 1813
Battle of Burnt Corn. Victory of the Indian Red Sticks over Mississippi militia and volunteers at Burnt Corn Creek. This is the opening battle of the
Creek War.


The Creek War begins.


August 2, 1813
Battle of Fort Stephenson, Ohio. U.S. victory. The Americans, led by George Croghan, successfully defend themselves against the British attack. The British Indian allies came along but couldn't find a taste for joining the action. The British withdraw.

The British call the Indians cowards, the Indians call the British crazy to attack if their guns are not strong enough.

Casualties: British troops killed: 100. American troops killed: 8.


August 10, 1813
Battle of St. Michaels (Michael's), Maryland. U.S. victory. The British attack the town, do little damage, and have to withdraw.


August 14, 1813
USS Argus vs. HMS Pelican. British victory. The Pelican is led by Commander John F. Maples. The Argus, under Master Commandant William Henry Allen, surrenders after 45 minutes of battle. Allen gets shot into his left thigh, loses a lot of blood, and faints. The Pelican takes him onboard, amputates his leg, but gangrene develops. Back in Plymouth, the British will take him to a hospital where Allen will die on August 18, 1813.


August 19, 1813
Two American flags are delivered to Fort McHenry, the work of a Mrs. Pickersgill, a Boston flag maker. The government pays $405.90 for the large garrison flag and $168.54 for the storm flag.


August 30, 1813
Fort Mims Massacre. Red Sticks, led by William Weatherford aka Red Eagle, attack Fort Mims, Alabama, at noon. The fort is under the command of Major Daniel Beasley. Most of the 300 occupants, including many women and children, are killed. About 100 Red Sticks are killed.


September 1, 1813
British Minister to Russia, William Schaw Cathcart, writes to Count de Nesselrode that Britain is not prepared to accept Russia's mediation, but nevertheless willing to negotiate with the United States directly.


September 5, 1813
USS Enterprise vs. HMS Boxer. Lieutenant William Burrows commands the Enterprise. Captain Samuel Blyth commands the Boxer. The Boxer surrenders. Both, Burrows and Blyth, are mortally wounded.


September 10, 1813
The naval Battle of Lake Erie, also called Battle of Put-in-Bay, a big US victory, led by Master Commandant Oliver Hazard Perry against British Captain Robert Heriot Barclay. Detroit is back in American hands.

Motivated by this decisive victory, William Henry Harrison decides to invade Canada, while Procter decides to retreat eastward. The thousands of Indian warriors and their families that have fought alongside the British, don't agree with Procter's decision.


September 13, 1813
Procter orders the dismantling of Fort Malden. Tecumseh is livid and calls Procter a coward. Many Indians leave the British forces.


October 5, 1813
The Battle of the Thames, Upper Canada, today's southern Ontario. U.S. victory. This battle is also called the Battle of Moraviantown.

The Americans pursued the British and Indians on their retreat eastward. Proctor decides to make a stand 2 miles of Moraviantown on the River Thames.

The Americans, 3,000 troops, 1/3 or them mounted, led by Harrison, attack the British, 430 regulars led by Procter, and 600 Indian warriors led by Tecumseh. The British troops are demoralized and don't put up much of a fight, whereas the Indians fought ferociously. The Americans win. The Chief of the Shawnee, Tecumseh, is killed in this battle.

Thanks to this victory, William Henry Harrison has control of the Northwest.

Thanks to this defeat, Henry Procter's career is essentially over. He will be court-martialed.

Battle of the Thames - 5th October 1813
Battle of the Thames - 5th October 1813
Illustrating: Col Johnson wounded contending with Tecumseh. Tecumseh having discharged his rifle, is about to raise his tomahawk, receives the pistol ball and threebuck shots in his breast the Indians seeing their leader fall, take to flight.

General Harrison with Commodore Perry and General Cass acting as Aides.

General Proctor making his escape in a carriage attended by dragoons, after abandoning his army which shortly surrendered to American arms.

Lieu. Col. James Johnson at the head of the mounted Kentucky volunteers in pursuit of Gen. Proctor.

Major Thompson personally contending with the Prophet, who was about to scalp the veteran Whitely, who had just fallen.

The aged veteran Whitely, who had fought in most of the wars for independence, slain.

James Mason, aged 86 fighting by the side of Col. Johnson.

Mai-pock shot by Capt. Ward. Maj's Sugget and Barry. Malden
John Dorival, Lithographer / Library of Congress


October 26, 1813
Battle of Châteauguay. British victory. The British manage to stop the American advance on Montreal.


November 1 - 2, 1813
Battle of French Creek. U.S. victory. The Americans can defend their position along French Creek against assailing British forces.


November 3, 1813
Battle of Tallushatchee. U.S. victory. Brig. Gen. John Coffee leads 900 cavalry and Indians in an attack against the Red Sticks village of Tallushatchee. Coffee wins and burns the village.


November 4, 1813
British Foreign Secretary Castlereagh writes to U.S. Secretary of State, James Monroe, that

the British Government is willing to enter into discussion with the Government of America for the conciliatory adjustment of the differences subsisting between the 2 States, with an earnest desire on their part to bring them to a favorable issue, upon principles of a perfect reciprocity not inconsistent with the established maxims of Public Law, and with the Maritime Rights of the British Empire.

He suggests to meet either at London or Gothenburg, Sweden, and attaches a copy of the letter from September 1st between Cathcart and Nesselrode.

Monroe will write back on January 5, 1814.


November 9, 1813
Battle of Talladega. U.S. victory. Maj. Gen. Andrew Jackson leads 2,000 troops from Fort Strother to relieve the besieged town of Talladega. Besiegers are 1,000 Red Sticks. Jackson wins.


November 11, 1813
The British win the Battle of Crysler's Farm.


November 18, 1813
Hillabee Massacre. Gen. John Cocke is not aware that the Hillabee Creeks were yesterday asking for terms of peace. When he attacks them today, they are completely taken by surprise.


November 29, 1813
Battle of Autosse. U.S. victory over the Red Sticks. John Floyd leads 950 Georgia militia and 400 friendly Creeks against Autosse, Mississippi Territory (Alabama). He wins this battle.


December 10, 1813
The Americans, under the command of Brig. Gen. George McClure, abandon Fort George and burn Newark, Ontario, Upper Canada, to deny the British opportunities of shelter.

This reckless action will have consequences. The British will return the favor and burn Lewiston (December 19, 1813), Black Rock, and Buffalo (December 30, 1813).


December 19, 1813
British capture of Fort Niagara. Once the fort was secure, the British, under Maj. Gen. Phineas Riall, destroy Lewiston, New York, and other small towns nearby.


December 23, 1813
Battle of Econochaca. Americans, led by Ferdinand Claiborne, attack and destroy the Creek town of Econochaca.


December 30, 1813
The British loot and burn Black Rock and Buffalo.




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