War of 1812 Timeline: 1814

Go here for the War of 1812 in a Nutshell

If these timelines of the War of 1812 are too detailed, check the  War of 1812 - Key Events, which are a summary of the years 1812-1815.

For overlapping events related to the  Napoleonic Wars see the timelines of the Napoleonic Wars for the years 1812-1815:

Napoleonic Wars: Year 1812

Napoleonic Wars: Year 1813

Napoleonic Wars: Year 1814

Napoleonic Wars: Year 1815


January 5, 1814
Monroe answers Castlereagh's letter from
November 4, 1813, in which Britain proposed peace negotiations:

I am accordingly instructed to make known to your Lordship, for the information of His Royal Highness the Prince Regent, that the President accedes to his proposition, and will take the measures depending on him for carrying it into effect at Gottenburg*, with as little delay as possible...

* Gothenburg, Göteborg in Sweden


January 18, 1814
James Madison, "by and with the advice and consent of the Senate," announces to have appointed John Quincy Adams, James A. Bayard, Henry Clay, and Jonathan Russell ministers plenipotentiary and extraordinary of the United States to negotiate and conclude peace with Great Britain.

Gallatin will be included on February 9, 1814.

Bayard and Gallatin are already in Europe. They had left the States on May 9, 1813 for St. Petersburg. And Adams, of course, has been in St. Petersburg several years now as the U.S. Minister to Russia.

The rest of the peace commission, Clay and Russell, will depart from the United States on February 25, 1814.


January 22, 1814
Battle of Emuckfau Creek. Andrew Jackson fights the Red Sticks. Draw.


January 24, 1814
Battle of Enitochopco. Andrew Jackson fights the Red Sticks once more. Another draw.


January 25, 1814
Having been at St. Petersburg since July 21, 1814, it becomes clear to Bayard and Gallatin that Great Britain is not going to accept Russia's offer of mediation.

Bayard and Gallatin leave St. Petersburg direction Amsterdam via Berlin. They will arrive in Amsterdam on March 4, 1814.


January 27, 1814
Battle of Calabee Creek. U.S. victory. Red Sticks surprise John Floyd and his men at their camp in a pre-dawn attack. After initial confusion, Floyd and friendly Creeks rout the Red Sticks. However, Floyd will return to Fort Mitchell and the Red Sticks will reclaim the battlefield.


February 9, 1814
Albert Gallatin is appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate to join the peace commission that has been announced on
January 18, 1814. The commission will leave for Europe on February 25, 1814. Adams, Bayard, and Gallatin are already in Europe.


February 25, 1814
Clay and Russell depart from the United States direction Gottenburg, Sweden. They will arrive on
April 14, 1814.


March 4, 1814
Bayard and Gallatin arrive at Amsterdam. They had left St. Petersburg on
January 25, 1814. They continue their journey and will arrive at London on April 10, 1814.


March 27, 1814
Battle of Horseshoe Bend (Tohopeka). Jackson and allied Creek defeat Red Sticks on the Tallapoosa River. Enormous carnage. Jackson's side sustains 200 casualties, his Creek enemies 800.


The Creek War ends.


March 28, 1814
HMS Phoebe and Cherub vs. USS Essex. British victory. The Essex surrenders 3 miles from Valparaiso, Chile.


March 30, 1814
Second Battle of La Colle Mill, also spelled Lacolle Mill. Draw. Americans, led by Maj. Gen. James Wilkinson, attack the British, who had done a good job of fortifying their position at La Colle Creek. The onslaught was unsuccessful and the Americans withdraw to Plattsburg (Plattsburgh.) This is Wilkinson's last battle.

The First Battle of Lacolle Mill had been fought on November 20, 1812.


April 1, 1814
At St. Petersburg, John Quincy Adams gets notified that he is expected at Ghent (Belgium) to negotiate a peace treaty for the War of 1812.


April 6, 1814
Napoleon abdicates. It will turn out to be his first abdication. June 22, 1815, will mark his second and final abdication.

Check this event in the Timeline of the Napoleonic Wars.


April 10, 1814
Bayard and Gallatin arrive at London from Amsterdam. They had left St. Petersburg on
January 25, 1814.


April 14, 1814
Clay and Russell arrive at Gottenburg. They commenced their journey on
February 25, 1814.


April 29, 1814
USS Peacock vs. HMS Epervier. U.S. Victory. -The Epervier surrenders to the Peacock, under Lewis Warrington.


May 5 - 6, 1814
Battle of Oswego. British victory. The British, led by Victor Fisher, attack the Americans at Oswego. With naval help from Commodore Yeo on the second day, they drive the Americans from their post.


May 13, 1814
Bayard and Gallatin meet with Castlereagh at London. They introduce themselves as part of the U.S. peace commission, and tell him that they are on their way to the peace negotiations at Gottenburg.

A few days later, Bayard and Gallatin receive a message from Bathurst, who suggests to hold the negotiations at Ghent instead of Gottenburg, to which they agree.

Ghent became possible because Napoleon abdicated on April 6, 1814. Check this event in the timeline of the Napoleonic Wars.


May 15, 1814
The Americans, led by Colonel John B. Campbell, take the village of Dover, also called Dover Mills, today's Port Dover, and burn it to the ground.


May 23, 1814
Bayard leaves London for Paris. His final destination is Ghent.


May 28, 1814
Bayard arrives at Paris. He will leave on June 15, 1814, for Ghent.


May 30, 1814
Battle of Sandy Creek. The British attack the Americans at Sandy Creek but lose this battle.


June 15, 1814
Bayard leaves Paris for Ghent.


June 27, 1814
Bayard arrives at Ghent. Adams and Russell are already there. Clay and Gallatin will join them in a few days. The British minister, however, will not arrive until August 6, 1814.


June 28, 1814
USS Wasp vs. HMS Reindeer. U.S. victory. The Wasp, under Capt. Johnston Blakely, took their prisoners and set the Reindeer on fire.


July 3, 1814
First Battle of Fort Erie. The British surrender their fort to the Americans, led by Brig. Gen. Winfield Scott, and Brig Gen. Eleazar Ripley.

The Second Battle of Fort Erie will be fought on August 15, 1814.


July 5, 1814
The Battle of Chippewa, a US victory.


July 17 - 18, 1814
The British attack and take Fort Shelby / Prairie du Chien. The Americans surrender on July 18, 1814.


July 25, 1814
The Battle of Lundy's Lane ends with a draw.


August 3, 1814
Battle of Conjocta Creek. U.S. victory. Americans, led by Major Lodowick Morgan, ambush the British, led by Tucker, at Conjocta Creek.

Also on August 3, 1814 - The British take Hampden, Maine


August 6, 1814
The British peace commission arrives at Ghent. Its three commissioners are William Adams, James Gambier, and Henry Goulburn.

This is Britain's B-team, and it will show during negotiations. Meanwhile, Britain's A-team is on their way to the Congress of Vienna.

Check this event in the timeline of the Napoleonic Wars.


August 8, 1814
Negotiations between British and American diplomats at Ghent begin. These will last until December 24, 1814, and will result in the
Treaty of Ghent.

Meeting at Ghent, then under French administration, has become possible because Napoleon abdicated on April 6, 1814.

Check this event in the timeline of the Napoleonic Wars.


August 9, 1814
Treaty of Fort Jackson. Jackson forces all tribal leaders to sign his Treaty of Fort Jackson, in which everyone agrees to give the whites another 36,000 square miles of land. Interestingly, Jackson also forces allied Indians to sign.


August 9 - 12, 1814
Battle of Stonington, Connecticut. U.S. victory. British bombardment of Stonington. Surprisingly, the British withdraw after four days of heavy fire.


August 13, 1814
Second Battle of Fort Erie. The British try to retake Fort Erie and open artillery fire. This battle will be decided on August 15, 1814. But the British will besiege the Fort until September 17, 1814.

The First Battle of Fort Erie took place on July 3, 1814.


August 14, 1814
With permission from the Spanish landlords, the British enter Pensacola. The objective is to free Mobile, which has been occupied by U.S. troops since
April 12, 1813.


August 15, 1814
At 2.30 a.m., Lt. Col. Victor Fischer leads 1,300 British troops in a surprise attack on Fort Erie. However, the Americans were expecting them. But more importantly, a powder magazine exploded, killed the entire British assault force, and decided the battle in favor of the Americans.


August 19, 1814
British troops land at Benedict, Maryland, on the shores of the Patuxent River.


August 24, 1814
Battle of Bladensburg. The British rout the Americans.


August 24-25, 1814
The British haven't forgotten the
Battle of York. At Washington, they shuffle down Pennsylvania Avenue and set fire to the White House, the Capitol, and all public buildings. Private property was off limits. They are led by Robert Ross and George Cockburn.

The Capitol,

shown ablaze in the background, was gutted, and only a sudden rainstorm prevented its complete destruction.

Architect of the Capitol

British Burn the Capitol, 1814 - Painting by Allyn Cox
British Burn the Capitol, 1814
Oil on Canvas by Allyn Cox in 1973-1974
Photograph taken on October 12, 2011, in the Cox Corridors, Capitol
United States Government Work
Architect of the Capitol

President Madison and the First Lady will temporary move into the Octagon House, Washington. Here she stands:

Octagon House, Washington D.C., located at 18th St. and New York Ave.
Octagon House, located at 18th St. and New York Ave., Northwest, Washington, D.C.
American Institute of Architects


The American Architectural Foundation tells you:

In August 1814, during the War of 1812, the British burned many public buildings in Washington, including the U.S. Capitol and the President’s House (now the White House). President and First Lady Dolley Madison rented The Octagon from the Tayloes (for $500 per month), which had escaped the flames. The French minister Louis Serurier, at the request of Mrs. Tayloe, declared the property French territory, flew the French flag, and notified the British, thus ensuring additional safety for the building. The Madisons resided here for six months and it was in the second floor parlor on February 17, 1815 that the Treaty of Ghent ending the war was signed by the President.

Here is a picture of Madison's study, the room above the entrance, in which he will sign the Treaty of Ghent.


August 30, 1814
Battle of Caulk's Field. Draw. American militia fight British sailors on land. British captain of the HMS Menelaus, Sir Peter Parker, is mortally wounded.


September 1, 1814
USS Wasp vs. HMS Avon. The Avon sinks.


September 6, 1814
Battle of Beekmantown, NY. British victory. U.S. volunteers from Plattsburgh accompany major general of militia Benjamin Mooers to Beekmantown, NY, where they encounter the British invasion forces and are pressed backwards to the Saranac River (Plattsburgh.) Here, with the Americans on the other side of the river, the British take a breather.

Although the British forces are superior in number, the U.S. militia fought well, and are promised a shiny rifle by Major General Alexander Macomb. But paperwork takes its time and they won't receive it until 1822.


September 7, 1814
Aboard the HMS Tonnant, Maj. Gen. Robert Ross gives permission to release Dr. William Beanes, after negotiations with Francis Scott Key and U.S. deputy for prisoner exchange, Col. John Skinner. However, they are ordered to stay onboard because of the imminent attack on Baltimore. They will be free to go on September 14, 1814.


September 11, 1814
The Battle of Lake Champlain, at which the U.S. naval forces under Thomas Macdonough defeat a larger British force. Meanwhile on land was fought the Battle of Plattsburg, also a U.S. victory.


September 12, 1814
Battle of North Point, British victory. Also called first day of the Battle of Baltimore. The British defeat the Americans but at great cost.

British Maj. Gen. Robert Ross is shot off his horse by an American sniper. A bullet passed through his right arm into his breast. He dies as he is being carried back to the boats. Colonel Arthur Brooke takes command.

The Battle of Baltimore will be fought until September 14, 1814.


September 13, 1814
Attack on Fort McHenry, or Second day of the Battle of Baltimore. In order to aid the British ground attack on Baltimore, the British navy has to get past Fort McHenry, which protects the harbor of Baltimore.

The British commence a 25-hour-non-stop-bombardment of Fort McHenry. Defending the fort are 1,000 troops under the command of Major George Armistead.


September 14, 1814
Third and final day of the Battle of Baltimore. After 25 hours of bombardment, the British withdraw from the vicinities of Baltimore, much to the delight of the Americans.

Although the British won the first attack on September 12, 1814, the Battle of Baltimore ends in a draw.

In the morning, Francis Scott Key, discovering that the Americans had successfully defended the fort, is inspired to write the words to The Star-Spangled Banner.

Earliest Known Manuscript of Key's Song
Earliest Known Manuscript of Key's Song
It is probably one of several drafts that Key made
before sending the copy to the printer.
Maryland Historical Society


Also September 14, 1814: First day of the First Battle of Fort Bowyer, Mobile Bay. A combined force of 225 British marines and their Indian allies launch a land attack to take Fort Bowyer, but are repulsed.


September 15, 1814
Second and last day of the First Battle of Fort Bowyer. For two hours, the British bombard the fort from sea. Eventually, one of their vessels, the HMS Hermes, runs aground. The British retreat. U.S. victory.

British casualties: 32 killed, 40 wounded. Other sources say 50 killed and wounded. The British commander William Henry Percy, captain of the HMS Hermes, did not die in this battle. He lived 1788–1855. But he did order the Hermes to be burnt so that it won't fall in enemy hands.

U.S. casualties: 4 killed, 4 wounded.

The British will be more successful at the Second Battle of Fort Bowyer on February 11, 1815.


September 17, 1814
U.S. Sortie from Fort Erie. U.S. victory. U.S. Brig. Gen Peter Porter leads two columns out of Fort Erie. This ends the Siege of Fort Erie and marks the beginning of Izard 's offensive.


October 9, 1814
This is the last time anyone saw the USS Wasp. It was sighted today by the Swedish brig Adonis. After this Wasp disappears will all on board. Nobody knows when and where exactly.


October 19, 1814
Battle of Cook's Mills. Draw.


November 5, 1814
The Americans judge Fort Erie too difficult to defend and blow it up.


November 7, 1814
The Americans, led by Andrew Jackson, take Pensacola. The British, who had set up camp in town with Spanish permission since August 14, 1814, have withdrawn, and the Spanish surrender.

Jackson falls back to Mobile where he expects the British to attack next. When the assault does not materialize, he assumes the British target New Orleans instead.


December 1, 1814
Jackson and his army arrives at New Orleans.


December 13, 1814
Major General William Carroll and 3,000 troops arrive at New Orleans.


December 14, 1814
Battle of Lake Borgne. British victory. Although the British won this battle, it will delay their advance on New Orleans, giving the U.S. more time to prepare.


December 15, 1814
The Hartford Convention begins. It will last until January 5, 1815.


December 23, 1814
Battle at Villeré Plantation. Draw. The Villeré plantation is located on the Mississippi River eight miles below New Orleans. The (now former) plantation owner's name is Major Jacques Philippe Villeré. His son manages to escape and warn Jackson of the British advance.

Although this battle is a draw, the British will stay at the plantation and will use it as their headquarters until their evacuation from Louisiana on January 19, 1815.


December 24, 1814
Treaty of Ghent is signed at Ghent, Belgium. Negotiations had begun on August 8, 1814.

Now that peace is restored, the United States wish to renew commercial relations with Great Britain. Before coming back to the States, Adams, Clay, and Gallatin are instructed to go to London and to negotiate a trade treaty.




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