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Napoleon Bonaparte as First Consul, shortly after the Battle of Marengo. Oil on canvas by Andrea Appiani.
Napoleon Bonaparte in 1800


War of the Second Coalition 1798-1802

Also spelled War of the 2nd Coalition, this war was part of the French Revolutionary Wars.


Who Fought the War of the Second Coalition?

France

against

the Second Coalition

(Britain, Austria, Russia, the Ottoman Empire, Naples, and Portugal)

 

Check here for the various Coalitions that were formed to fight against France.

 

Image Above

In front: Napoleon Bonaparte as First Consul, shortly after the Battle of Marengo on June 14, 1800. Oil on canvas by Andrea Appiani, who lived 1754-1817.

Christie's auctioned this painting with an estimated $150,000. On June 17, 2004, it sold for $769,100.

And Christie's tells us more:

This uniform, known as the Marengo uniform, is today part of the collection of the Musée des Invalides, Paris, where it is on display in the Salle Consulat.

The uniform and the sabre were specifically requested by Jacques-Louis David, when, at the end of 1800, he painted the famous equestrian portrait of Bonaparte crossing the Alps at the Grand-Saint-Bernard pass.


When Did the War of the Second Coalition Begin?

The War of the Second Coalition begun on November 29, 1798, when Karl Mack led an army of 40,000 Neapolitan troops into Rome, thus seriously challenging the recently installed French Roman Republic.

Check this event in the Timeline of the French Revolutionary Wars.


Although their commander, Karl Mack, was Austrian, the army that entered Rome was not a coalition force. It was the army of the
Kingdom of Naples (Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.)

Why, then, can this event be referred to as the starting point of the War of the Second Coalition?

Because by this time, the Second Coalition had already formed. Although it had not yet been completely consolidated, the rest was only paper work.

In fact, one of the reasons for Naples' premature campaign had been pressure from Britain to become more active against the French. And in turn, by this move, Naples was applying pressure on Austria to do the same.

 

Members of the Second Coalition Already at War With France

On November 29, 1798, the following members of the Second Coalition were already at war with France:


:: Britain
Britain had been at war with France without interruption since 1793.

:: Portugal
Technically, Portugal was also still at war with France because it never signed a peace treaty after the
War of the First Coalition. Portugal had become an ally in 1793 when it assisted Britain and Spain with troops on land and sea.

:: Ottoman Empire
Prodded by Napoleon's Egyptian Campaign, the Ottoman Empire had declared war on France on September 11, 1798.

 

When Did the War of the Second Coalition End?

The War of the Second Coalition ended on March 27, 1802, when the  Treaty of Amiens was signed.

Check this event in the Timeline of the French Revolutionary Wars.

 

Who Won the War of the Second Coalition? Who Lost?

France was the victor of the War of the Second Coalition.

The Second Coalition lost mainly due to the fact that its members couldn't agree on a joint strategy against France.

 

What Was the Main Difference Between the First and the Second Coalition?

In the First Coalition, Prussia was in, and Russia was out.

In the Second Coalition, Prussia was out, and Russia was in.

:: Prussia
Prussia was a sought-after ally by the members of the Second Coalition. In fact, Russia was prepared to furnish Prussia with 45,000 troops, for which Britain was prepared to pick up the tab. But Prussia's new king,  Frederick William III, decided to take a time-out. He rejoined the fight against France in the War of the Fourth Coalition. Of course, by then it was too late.

:: Russia
Russia's new sovereign was Paul I, a man whom the very competent  Catherine the Great tried to keep away from the throne, even though it was her son. Paul ruled 1796-1801.

 

What Were the Main Treaties Behind the Second Coalition?

May 19, 1798
Treaty concluded at Vienna between Austria and the Two Sicilies (Naples)

November 29, 1798
Treaty concluded at Saint Petersburg between Russia and the Two Sicilies

December 1, 1798
Treaty concluded at Naples between Britain and the Two Sicilies

December 25, 1798
Treaty concluded at Constantinople between Russia and the Ottoman Empire

December 29, 1798
Treaty concluded at Saint Petersburg between Russia and Britain

January 2, 1799
Treaty concluded at Constantinople between Britain and the Ottoman Empire

January 21, 1799
Treaty concluded at Constantinople between the Ottoman Empire and the Two Sicilies

September 28, 1799
Treaty concluded at Saint Petersburg between Russia and Portugal

October 1, 1799
Treaty concluded between Russia and Bavaria

March 16, 1800
Treaty concluded at Munich between Britain and Bavaria

April 20, 1800
Treaty concluded at Louisburg between Britain and Wurttemberg (Württemberg)

April 30, 1800
Treaty concluded between Britain and Mayence (Mainz)

June 20, 1800
Treaty between Britain and Austria

 

Brief Timeline, Key Events and Battles of the War of the Second Coalition

November 29, 1798 - Naples evicts the French from Rome

December 4, 1798 - Battle of Civita Castellana

March 12, 1799 - France declares war on Austria

March 25, 1799 - Battle of Stokach

April 27, 1799 - Battle of Cassano

June 4-6, 1799 - First Battle of Zurich

June 17-19, 1799 - Battle of Trebbia

August 15, 1799 - Battle of Novi

September 25-26, 1799 - Second Battle of Zurich

April 21 - June 4, 1800 - Siege of Genoa

June 14, 1800 - Battle of Marengo

December 3, 1800 - Battle of Hohenlinden

April 2, 1801 - Battle of Copenhagen

March 27, 1802 - Treaty of Amiens

 

More detailed timelines here:

French Revolutionary Wars Timeline - 1798

French Revolutionary Wars Timeline - 1799

French Revolutionary Wars Timeline - 1800

French Revolutionary Wars Timeline - 1801

French Revolutionary Wars Timeline - 1802

 

 

And here are the maps

War of the Second Coalition 1798-1801
Map of the War of the Second Coalition 1798-1801

 

Italy 1799
1799 Italy

 

European Waters 1792-1815
1792-1815 European Waters

 

Ottoman Empire in Europe 1792
1792 Ottoman Empire in Europe

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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