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Los cruzados ante Jerusalén / The Crusaders Before Jerusalem. Oil on canvas by Eugenio Lucas Velázquez
The Crusaders Before Jerusalem


The Crusades 1095-1272

The Crusades (from the Latin word for cross) were a series of wars between European Christians and Muslims fighting for the Holy Land (Palestine, especially the city of Jerusalem.)

Image Above

Los cruzados ante Jerusalén / The Crusaders Before Jerusalem. Oil on canvas by Eugenio Lucas Velázquez.

Museo Lázaro Galdiano, Madrid

 

The Crusades in a Nutshell

Regaining control over the Holy Land was not the only objective. Christians were also concerned by the speedy Islamic expansion in general.

Thus, in the gift shops of both camps, two centuries of massacre would be sold as God's Will.

In the end, the Crusades failed to free the Holy Land from Muslim control.

The eight Crusades took place between the years 1095 and 1272. Here is a brief timeline with main events:

1095 - 1099

First Crusade
(Some say the First Crusade started in 1096, instead of 1095.)

Christians recapture Jerusalem in July 1099, four Latin states established: Jerusalem, Edessa, Antioch and Tripoli.

Godfrey of Bouillon was one of the leaders in the First Crusade.

   

1144

Muslims reconquer Edessa

   

1147 - 1149

Second Crusade

   

1155

Carmelite Order established on Mt. Carmel in Palestine

   

1187

Muslims recapture Jerusalem and drive Crusaders out of all but three cities

   

1189 - 1192

Third Crusade

1190 — Foundation of the Teutonic Order

July 1191 — Richard I the Lionheart and his army take Acre

Sept 7, 1191 Battle of Arsuf

   

1202 - 1204

Fourth Crusade - Looting of Constantinople

   

1210

Francis of Assisi establishes the Franciscan Order

   

1215

Domingo de Guzmán establishes the Dominican Order

   

1217 - 1221

Fifth Crusade

   

1228 - 1229

Sixth Crusade - Recapture of Jerusalem by the Christians

   

1240

Jerusalem falls to the Muslims

   

1248 - 1254

Seventh Crusade

Louis IX was leader of the Seventh Crusade.

   

1270 - 1272

Eighth Crusade



Background

In AD 637, Jerusalem was taken by the Muslims and, slowly but surely, it became obvious that Christians, pilgrims and otherwise, weren't welcome anymore.

Parallel to this, the power and the influence of the papacy in Europe weakened. How could the Church get back to power? 

War unites, or so figured Pope Urban II, and delivered a fiery speech at Clermont, France, in 1095. Everyone was energized and merrily hiked direction Holy Land, most of them with one-way tickets.


Here are the Crusades in the stream of time.

 

And here are the maps:

History Map: The Era of the Crusades, 1095 - 1272.
Map of the Era of the Crusades 1095-1272 AD


Europe and the Mediterranean Lands about 1097. Inset: Europe and the Mediterranean Lands by Religions about 1097.
Map of the First Crusade


Map of the First Crusade 1095-1099
1095-1099 First Crusade


Map of the Levant 1097-1099
1097-1099 The Levant


Europe 1135
1135 Europe

 

Asia Minor and the States of the Crusaders in Syria, about 1140. Insets: Palestine. Plan of Jerusalem about 1187.
Map of the States of the Crusaders 1140 AD


Europe and the Mediterranean Lands about 1190. Inset: Guelf, Hohenstaufen and Ascanian Domains in Germany about 1176.
Map of the Second and Third Crusade


The Mediterranean Lands after 1204.
Map of the Fourth, Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Crusade


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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