Turkey in the Stream
Highlights in the History of Modern Turkey
Atlas of the Middle East 1993.
Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection.
Map of Turkey 2006
Map of Turkey 2010
World War I
Ottoman Empire concludes secret treaty of alliance with Germany.
Sultan sues for peace.
Allied-dictated armistice signed October 30, 1918.
League of Nations assumes administrative custody of former Ottoman
Treaty of Sevres (Treaty of Sèvres) of August 10, 1920, reduces
Empire to a small area of Anatolia.
Republic of Turkey proclaimed on October 29, 1923, as successor state to
600-year-old Ottoman Empire.
Mustafa Kemal named President.
Capital moved from Constantinople to Ankara.
Social, political, linguistic, and economic reforms transform Turkey
modern Western state.
Various Kurdish insurrections routinely repressed.
Boundary with Iraq settled by League of Nations initiative.
Constantinople officially becomes Istanbul.
Montreaux Convention regulates ship transit through the Turkish
Mustafa Kemal, better known as Kemal Ataturk "father of the Turks,"
Franco-Turkish agreement transfers Syrian province of Alexandretta
Turkey, present-day Hatay Province.
World War II on Allied side shortly before war ends.
Truman Doctrine results in large-scale US military and economic aid.
Military facilities agreement with US allows stationing of American
Military coup, civilian government reinstated in 1961.
UN forestalls threatened military intervention to protect Turkish
War with Greece over Cyprus is narrowly averted.
"Coup by memorandum" replaces government.
Greece engineers coup on Cyprus.
Turkish forces invade and occupy northern part of island.
Military takeover restores public order.
New constitution drawn up by 1982.
Turkey applies for European Community membership.
Lucrative transit trade to Iran and Iraq shifts from wartime to
orientation after Tehran and Baghdad agree on armistice.
Economy hard hit when UN-sponsored sanctions against Iraq curtail
commodities transit trade.